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Patil (Marathi: पाटील, Kannada: ಪಾಟೀಲ, Telugu: పాటిల) (meaning "head" or "chief") is an Indian title or lastname. The granted territory is usually referred to as the patilki or Watandar. The Patil was in effect the ruler of the territory, as he was entitled to the collected revenues. Many Patils were warriors in the Maratha army. Patil is last name in Maratha (land lords) also it is given the surname to gujar patil, leva patil, Kunbi Patil or only patil to of others in rest of Maharashtra.
"Patil" is predominantly used by Inhabitants of Deccan Vidarbha Maratha people (Maharashtra, Karnataka and Telangana parts of Andhra Pradesh). The native language of most Patils is predominantly either Marathi language or Kannada. Traditionally, the Patils being the head of the village had people like the Talati or Kulkarni to assist them in doing clerical work for the collection of revenue in their areas of control.
Origin of word Patil
Different scholars have suggested different theories about the origin of the word Patil.
'Patil' meant "group" or "branch" during the regime of Mohammad Begada. 'Patt'barhate meant "part of the land" and 'Patidar' meant "Tax Collector". 'Patil' meant "chief of the village".
The word Patil could also have derived from 'Patilki'. 'Patu' means "Clever", and "patta" means "Chief". The person who established the village used to become Patil. Patil used to become known, because of Village recognition. Patil was not a government post or self occupied post. Virtues and works of the person used to make him a Patil. Later on this post became hereditary. Patil became the Village King and later received Government honor, even after receiving many posts. The Sardars means "soldiers" who did not give up Patilship. In some places Patils are known as 'Mokaddam' or 'Mukadam' meaning is Chief Man (King of Village).
A man who bought his relatives and opened land became the Patil or the village chief. He in essence owned the village land and granted it to others. A Patil generally owned about 30-40 percent of land in the village. His job was to collect revenue from the entire village and submit it to the royal treasury. He not only acted as a revenue officer but as a judicial head in the village. As the chieftain of the village.Besides this the Patil was responsible for defence of the village, tracing every crime in the village and provide protection to the village. The Patil was also awarded with rent free lands or Inam. A Patil also received Patilkis (village chief rights).
Among prominent Patils were the Royal Bhonsle (or Bhosle) family. Shivaji Maharaj's grandfather Maloji Bhosle was a Patil of villages near Daund in Pune and verul (ellora) near Aurangabad. Other prominent Patils included the Royal Gaikwad family, who were Patils of Lalvan in Malegaon Taluka, the Royal Shinde family were Patils of village Kanherkhed in Satara, the Royal Chambahrepatil of Palsoda Village At Malkapur Taluka and most royal clans were Patils.also shelke from kalamb,shirol and shirdi were royal families were patils.
The term Police Patil was used by the East India Company, but it is not related to the Watandar Patils that were granted territory by Shivaji Maharaj or Mughals and Aadils.
In Maharashtra, most of Patils belongs to Hindu religion, specifically Kshatriya Maratha caste which is dominant forward caste in state. Patil is one of the most common surnames in Maharashtra and generally Patil surname is assumed as the person is well educated and belongs to prosperous family background.
In Karnataka, some of Patils are Lingayat which is also a dominant political caste in state of Karnataka.
Some Patils belongs to Jain religion as well across both states.
Influence in society
Generally, Patils are considered as respectful person in society because of in born leadership qualities, healthy social relationships and economic prosperity. Many Patils has achieved some of topmost positions in social, political and cultural fields of society.
Patils are predominant political powers in the state of Maharashtra. From the root village level to topmost position of President, Patils achieved each and every title by their political charm.
Patils are also known for their Entrepreneurship. So many Patils are successful in business from well equipped farming to multinational corporate industries, which makes them prominent business community in India.
Patils can be seen behind growth of educational institutes across nation. Some notable examples are institutes established by D. Y. Patil : DY Patil university, vasantdada patil : Padmbhooshan Vasantdada Patil Institute of Technology etc.
Some notable Patils
- Pratibha Patil, former president of India
- Shivraj Patil, Former Home Minister of India
- D. Y. Patil, current Governor-designate of Bihar
- Smita Patil, Renowned Bollywood actress
- Vasantdada Patil - Former Chief Minister of Maharashtra & Governor of Rajasthan
- Balasaheb Vikhe Patil - Former member of Indian Parliament and member of Indian National Congress.
- Gulabrao Patil - Ex. President Maharashtra state Congress and MP.
- Shivajirao Nilangekar Patil, Former Chief Minister of Maharashtra
- R R Patil, Ex. Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Currently home minister of Maharashtra
- Dilip Walse-Patil, Maharashtra MLA, and current Finance Minister
- Harshavardhan Patil, Cabinet Minister for Sehkar from Maharashtra
- Jayant Patil, Current Rular Development Minister of Maharashtra
- Krantisinha Nana Patil was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1957 from north Satara constituency from Communist Party of India. He was the first to give a speech in Marathi on the floor of Parliament
- Suhas Patil, founder of fabless semiconductor supplier company Cirrus Logic headquartered in Austin, Texas
- Veerendra Patil, former Chief Minister of Karnataka
- V.L. Patil, Politician and Independence Activist
- Bandu Patil (January 1, 1936 – August 23, 1988), Olympic Gold medal Men's hockey 1964 - Tokyo
- Pratik Patil, Minister of State for Mining & coal of India
- Veena Patil, key person of tour company Veena World and formed MD of Kesri Tours.
- Kishor Patil, MD and CEO of KPIT cummins 
- Dinkar D. Patil, was a prominent Marathi film director, scriptwriter, and dialogue writer in Marathi film industry
- Sandeep Patil, former Indian cricket player
- Shivaji Lotan Patil, is an Indian film director. He bagged the 60th National Award for Best Director for his Marathi film Dhag
- Anjali Patil, Theater and Bollywood actress
- Sachit Patil, Marathi film actor
- Vimla Patil, is an Indian journalist, author, activist, columnist, writer (books and features, speeches and research), event designe
- Manjusha Kulkarni-Patil, is an Hindustani classical music vocalist.She belongs to the Gwalior gharana.
- Krishna Patil, is an Indian mountaineer . She is known as the second youngest Indian to climb Mount Everest at an age of 19
- Kailash Patil, is Indian football player playing for club ONGC FC.
- Anuja Patil, is a cricketer from Kolhapur,Maharashtra played in Twenty20 Internationals for India.
- Swapnil Patil, is an Emirati cricketer.He played for the United Arab Emirates in the 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier tournament.
- Kavita Patil is an actress who played Sergeant Medawar in the American television show The Unit.
For the Harry Potter characters see:
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- Dr. Soni's book page No. 69 of "Marathi Aadnave.