London Penny Post
In England, the Post Office had a monopoly on the collection and carriage of letters between post towns but there was no delivery system until the London Penny Post was established in 1680 by William Dockwra and his partner Robert Murray. They established a local post that used a uniform rate of one old penny for delivery of letters and packets weighing up to one pound within the cities of Westminster and London as well as Southwark. There were several deliveries a day within the city, and items were also delivered to addresses up to ten miles outside London for an extra charge of one penny. In 1683, Dockwra was forced to surrender the Penny Post to the English Monarchy for circulating what were considered seditious newsletters sharply criticizing Duke of York, who was in charge of and directly benefited from the General Post Office.
Local Penny Post
In 1765, Parliament authorized the creation of Penny Posts in any town or city of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The single postage rate of one penny was charged within the area, calculated by weight. By the beginning of the 19th century there were many of these, identifiable on covers, with markings such as "PP", "Py Post", or "Penny Post" along with the name of the town.
The early penny post system in Edinburgh, founded in 1773/4 by Peter Williamson, known as "Indian Peter," usefully combined it with one of the world's first street directories. He circulated mail to 17 shops in the city (effectively post offices) and employed 4 uniformed postmen. Their hats read "Penny Post" and were numbered 1,4,8 and 16 to make the business look bigger.
Uniform Fourpenny Post
Uniform Penny Post
In 1835 Rowland Hill published a pamphlet entitled 'Post Office Reform' which led to various reforms and the introduction of the first postage stamp and convinced Parliament to implement much needed reforms in the current postal system. On 10 January 1840, the Uniform Penny Post was established throughout the UK, facilitating the safe, speedy and cheap conveyance of letters, and from 6 May could be prepaid with the first postage stamp, known as the Penny Black.
Imperial Penny Post
On Christmas Day, 1898, the Imperial Penny Post extended the rate throughout the British Empire except for Australia and New Zealand, who would not subscribe to it until 1905. In 1908 it was extended to America.
The Penny Post rate ended in Great Britain in 1918.
Davis' Penny Post operated in Baltimore, Maryland for several weeks of February 1856, leaving behind a handful of rare stamps.
References and source
- "Calendar of Treasury Papers Vol. LXXXII. 1702, Oct.13 - Nov. 30"
- "Provincial Penny Posts". The British Postal Museum and Archive. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- George Brumell. "Dockwra Family Research Center". The Local Posts of London 1680-1840 by George Brumell. first published in 1938 second edition published by Alcock and Holland. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- "Key Dates". British Postal Museum & Archive. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- Dobson, David. "A Man Called Indian Peter". University of Georgia Press. Retrieved 11 December 2010-12-11.
- "Glossary of Stamp Collecting Terms". AskPhil.org - Collectors Club of Chicago. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- Baker, Colin. "Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution Proceedings vol.8 The History of the Postal Services". Royal Literary & Scientific Institution. Retrieved December 12, 2010-12-12.
- "Dictionary of Australian Biography: Sir John Henniker Heaton". Project Gutenberg Australia. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
- Golden, Catherine J. (2009). Posting It: The Victorian Revolution in Letter Writing. [University Press of Florida]. ISBN 978-0-8130-3379-2.