It is located in the rostral, intermediate, and caudal regions of the hypothalamus. The rostral region aids in the production of both somatostatin and thyroid releasing hormone. The intermediate portion aids in production of thyroid releasing hormone, somatostatin, leptin, gastrin, and neuropeptide y. In humans and primates it also produces GnRH. Lastly the caudal region aids in sympathetic nervous system regulation, and is regarded as the rage center. The periventricular nucleus does not have an effective blood–brain barrier. It should not be confused with the paraventricular nucleus. 11β-HSD2 expression turns cortisol into cortisone.
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