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Temporal range: Silurian–Devonian
Phacops rana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Trilobita
Order: Phacopida
Family: Phacopidae
Genus: Phacops
Emmrich, 1839

and see text


Portlockia, Somatrikelon, Somatrikopon

Phacops is a genus of trilobite in the order Phacopida, family Phacopidae, that lived in Europe and North America in the Silurian and Devonian periods.[2] It was a rounded animal, with a globose head and large eyes,[2] and probably fed on detritus.[3] Phacops is often found rolled up, a biological defense mechanism that is widespread among smaller trilobites but nearly perfected by this genus.[3]


Phacops contains the following species:

Species previously assigned to Phacops[edit]

A number of species previously assigned to the genus Phacops have since been transferred to other genera:[1][10][11][12][13][14]


  1. ^ a b Moore, R.C. (1959). Arthropoda I - Arthropoda General Features, Proarthropoda, Euarthropoda General Features, Trilobitomorpha. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part O. Boulder, Colorado/Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America/University of Kansas Press. pp. 1–560. ISBN 0-8137-3015-5. 
  2. ^ a b John P. Rafferty (2010). "The Silurian Period". The Paleozoic Era: Diversification of Plant and Animal Life. Geologic History of Earth. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 138–186. ISBN 978-1-61530-196-6. 
  3. ^ a b David L. Bruton & Winfried Haas (2003). Philip D. Lane, Derek J. Siveter & Richard A. Fortey, ed. "Trilobites and their Relatives: Contributions from the Third International Conference, Oxford 2001". Special Papers in Palaeontology 70. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 331–348. ISBN 978-0-901702-81-4.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  4. ^ Global Names Index. "Repository "Index to Organism Names"". Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d Viersen, van, A.P. (2004). "De mythe van Phacops latifrons [The Myth of Phacops latifrons]". Grondboor & Hamer 3/4: 66–68. 
  6. ^ a b Osmolska, H. (1953). "Famennian Phacopidae from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland)" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 3 (2). 
  7. ^ Eldredge, N. (1972). "Systematics and evolution of Phacops rana (Green, 1832) and Phacops iowensis Delo, 1935 (Trilobita) from the Middle Devonian of North America". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 147 (article 2): 45–114. 
  8. ^ Burton, C.J.; Eldredge, N. (1974). "Two new subspecies of Phacops rana (Trilobita) from the Middle Devonian of North-West Africa" (PDF). Palaeontology 17 (2): 349. 
  9. ^ Global Names Index. "Repository "Index to Organism Names"". Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  10. ^ Shergold, J.H. (1966). "A revision of Acaste downingiae (Murchison) and related trilobites" (PDF). Palaeontology 9 (2): 183–207. 
  11. ^ Crônier, C. (2003). "Systematic relationships of the blind phacopine trilobite Trimerocephalus, with a new species from Causses−et−Veyran, Montagne Noire" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 48 (1): 55–70. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  12. ^ "acuticeps Kayser, 1889". Global Names Index. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  13. ^ Ramskjöld, L.; Werdelin, L. (1991). "The phylogeny and evolution of some phacopid trilobites". Cladistics 7: 29–74. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1991.tb00021.x. 
  14. ^ Corbacho, Joan (2011). "Trilobites from the Upper Ordovician of Bou Nemrou - El Kaid Errami (Morocco) [Trilobites del Ordovícico Superior de Bou Nemrou - El Kaid Errami (Marruecos)]" (PDF). Batelleria 16: 16–31. 

External links[edit]