List of hyperaccumulators

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This article covers known hyperaccumulators, accumulators or species tolerant to the following: Aluminium (Al), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Beryllium (Be), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Molybdenum (Mo), Naphthalene, Lead (Pb), Palladium (Pd), Platinum (Pt), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn).

See also:

Hyperaccumulators table – 1[edit]

hyperaccumulators and contaminants : Al, Ag, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Hg, Mo, naphthalene, Pb, Pd, Pt, Se, Zn – accumulation rates
Contaminant Accumulation rates (in mg/kg dry weight) Binomial name English name H-Hyperaccumulator or A-Accumulator P-Precipitator T-Tolerant Notes Sources
Al-Aluminium A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass As(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Al - Aluminium 1000 Hordeum vulgare Barley xxx 25 records of plants. [2][3]
Al - Aluminium xxx Hydrangea spp. Hydrangea (a.k.a. Hortensia) xxx xxx xxx
Al - Aluminium Al concentrations in young leaves, mature leaves, old leaves, and roots were found to be 8.0, 9.2, 14.4, and 10.1 mg g1, respectively.[4] Melastoma malabathricum L. Blue Tongue, or Native Lassiandra P competes with aluminium and reduces uptake.[5] xxx xxx
Al-Aluminium xxx Solidago hispida (Solidago canadensis L.) Hairy Goldenrod xxx Origin Canada. [2][3]
Al-Aluminium 100 Vicia faba Horse Bean xxx xxx [2][3]
Ag-Silver xxx Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Ag-Silver xxx Salix spp. Osier spp. Cr, Hg, Se, Petroleum hydrocarbures, Organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [7]
Ag-Silver xxx Amanita strobiliformis European Pine Cone Lepidella Ag(H) Macrofungi, Basidiomycete. Known from Europe, prefers calcareous areas [10]
Ag-Silver 10-1200 Brassica juncea Indian Mustard Ag(H) Can form alloys of silver-gold-copper [11]
As-Arsenic 100 Agrostis capillaris L. Common Bent Grass, Browntop. (= A. tenuris) Al(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) xxx [3]
As-Arsenic H- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
As-Arsenic 1000 Agrostis tenerrima Trin. Colonial bentgrass xxx 4 records of plants [3][12]
As-Arsenic 27,000 (fronds)[13] Pteris vittata L. Ladder brake fern or Chinese brake fern 26% of arsenic in the soil removed after 20 weeks' plantation, about 90% As accumulated in fronds.[14] Root extracts reduce arsenate to arsenite.[15] xxx
As-Arsenic 100-7000 Sarcosphaera coronaria pink crown, violet crown-cup, or violet star cup As(H) Ectomycorrhizal ascomycete, known from Europe Stijve et al., 1990, in Persoonia 14(2): 161-166, Borovička 2004 in Mykologický Sborník 81: 97-99.
Be-Beryllium xxx xxx xxx xxx No reports found for accumulation [3]
Cr-Chromium xxx Azolla spp. mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern xxx xxx [3][16]
Cr-Chromium H- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water hyssop Cd(H), Cu(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][17]
Cr-Chromium xxx Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) Cultivated in agriculture. [1][7][18]
Cr-Chromium xxx Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Cr-Chromium A- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Pb(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]
Cr-Chromium 1000 Dicoma niccolifera xxx xxx 35 records of plants [3]
Cr-Chromium roots naturally absorb pollutants, some organic compounds believed to be carcinogenic,[19] in concentrations 10,000 times that in the surrounding water.[20] Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cu(A), Hg(H),[19] Pb(H),[19] Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[19][21] and pesticides.[22] Pantropical/Subtropical. Plants sprayed with 2,4-D may accumulate lethal doses of nitrates.[23] 'The troublesome weed' – hence an excellent source of bioenergy.[19] [1]
Cr-Chromium xxx Helianthus annuus Sunflower xxx Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration [1][7]
Cr A- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H) Hg(H), Pb(H) xxx [1]
Cr-Chromium xxx Medicago sativa Alfalfa xxx xxx [3][24]
Cr-Chromium xxx Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce Cd(T), Hg(H), Cr(H), Cu(T) xxx [1][3][25]
Cr-Chromium xxx Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Hg, Se, Petroleum hydrocarbures, Organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [7]
Cr-Chromium xxx Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) xxx [1][3][26]
Cr-Chromium xxx Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Native to North America. [1][3][26]
Cr-Chromium 100 Jamesbrittenia fodina (Wild) Hilliard
(a.k.a. Sutera fodina Wild)
xxx xxx xxx [3][27][28]
Cr-Chromium A- Thlaspi caerulescens Alpine Pennycress, Alpine Pennygrass Cd(H), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. T. caerulescens may acidify its rhizosphere, which would affect metal uptake by increasing available metals[29] [1][3][7][30][31][32]
Cu-Copper 9000 Aeolanthus biformifolius xxx xxx xxx [33]
Cu-Copper xxx Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Pb(H), Zn(H) Origin Japan. [1]
Cu-Copper A- Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Ni(A), Pb(A), Mn(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]
Cu-Copper H- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water hyssop Cd(H), Cr(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][17]
Cu-Copper xxx Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) cultivated [1][7][18]
Cu-Copper H- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Cr(A), Pb(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]
Cu-Copper xxx Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Hg(H), Pb(H), Zn(A), Also Cs, Sr, U,[21] and pesticides.[22] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Cu-Copper 1000 Haumaniastrum robertii
(Lamiaceae)
Copper flower xxx 27 records of plants. Origin Africa. This species' phanerogam has the highest cobalt content. Its distribution could be governed by cobalt rather than copper.[34] [3][31]
Cu-Copper xxx Helianthus annuus Sunflower xxx Phytoextraction with rhizofiltration [1][31]
Cu-Copper 1000 Larrea tridentata Creosote Bush xxx 67 records of plants. Origin U.S. [3][31]
Cu-Copper H- Lemna minor Duckweed Pb(H), Cd(H), Zn(A) Native to North America and widespread worldwide. [1]
Cu-Copper xxx Ocimum centraliafricanum Copper plant Cu(T), Ni(T) Origin Southern Africa [35]
Cu-Copper T- Pistia stratiotes Water Lettuce Cd(T), Hg(H), Cr(H) Pantropical. Origin South U.S.A. Aquatic herb. [1]
Cu-Copper xxx Thlaspi caerulescens Alpine pennycress, Alpine Pennycress, Alpine Pennygrass Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. Copper noticeably limits its growth.[32] [1][3][7][29][30][31][32]
Mn-Manganese A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Mn-Manganese xxx Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Cu(A), Ni(A), Pb(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]
Mn-Manganese xxx Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard xxx xxx [7][18]
Mn-Manganese xxx Helianthus annuus Sunflower xxx Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration [7]
Mn-Manganese 1000 Macadamia neurophylla
(now Virotia neurophylla (Guillaumin) P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast)
xxx xxx 28 records of plants [3][36]
Mn-Manganese 200 xxx xxx xxx xxx [3]
Hg-Mercury A- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water hyssop Cd(H), Cr(H), Cu(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][17]
Hg-Mercury xxx Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Hg-Mercury xxx Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Pb(H), Zn(A)Also Cs, Sr, U,[21] and pesticides.[22] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Hg-Mercury H- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Cr(A), Pb(H) xxx [1]
Hg-Mercury 1000 Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce Cd(T), Cr(H), Cu(T) 35 records of plants [1][3][31][37]
Hg-Mercury xxx Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Cr, Se, Petroleum hydrocarbures, Organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [7]
Mo-molybdenum 1500 Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) phytoextraction [1][3][7][29][30][31][32]
naphthalene xxx Festuca arundinacea Tall Fescue xxx Increases catabolic genes and the mineralization of naphthalene. [38]
naphthalene xxx Trifolium hirtum Pink clover, rose clover xxx Decreases catabolic genes and the mineralization of naphthalene. [38]
Pb-Lead A- Agrostis castellana 'Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(H), Mn(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Pb-Lead xxx Ambrosia artemisiifolia Ragweed xxx xxx [6]
Pb-Lead xxx Armeria maritima Seapink Thrift xxx xxx [6]
Pb-Lead xxx Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Cu(H), Zn(H) Origin Japan. [1]
Pb-Lead A- Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Cu(A), Ni(A), Mn(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]
Pb-Lead A- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water hyssop Cd(H), Cr(H), Cu(H), Hg(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1][17]
Pb-Lead H- Brassica juncea Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) 79 recorded plants. Phytoextraction [1][3][6][7][18][29][31][32][39]
Pb-Lead xxx Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][7]
Pb-Lead xxx Brassica oleracea Ornemental Kale et Cabbage, Broccoli xxx xxx [6]
Pb-Lead H- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]
Pb-Lead xxx Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Hg(H), Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[21] and pesticides.[22] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Pb-Lead xxx Festuca ovina Blue Sheep Fescue xxx xxx [6]
Pb-Lead xxx Helianthus annuus Sunflower xxx Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration [1][6][7][8][39]
Pb-Lead H- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Cr(A), Hg(H) xxx [1]
Pb-Lead H- Lemna minor Duckweed Cd(H), Cu(H), Zn(H) Native to North America and widespread worldwide. [1]
Pb-Lead xxx Salix viminalis Common Osier Cd, U, Zn;[8] Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, Petroleum hydrocarbures, Organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products (S. spp.);[7] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [8]
Pb-Lead H- Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Origin India. [1]
Pb-Lead xxx Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Cr(H), Ni(H), Zn(A) Native to North America. [1][3][26]
Pb-Lead xxx Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress, Alpine Pennycress, Alpine Pennygrass Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo(H), Ni(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. [1][3][7][29][30][31][32]
Pb-Lead xxx Thlaspi rotundifolium Round-leaved Pennycress xxx xxx [6]
Pb-Lead xxx Triticum aestivum Common Wheat xxx xxx [6]
Pb-Lead A-200 xxx xxx xxx xxx [3]
Pd-Palladium xxx xxx xxx xxx No reports found for accumulation. [3]
Pt-Platinum xxx xxx xxx xxx No reports found for accumulation. [3]
Se-Selenium .012-20 Amanita muscaria Fly agaric xxx Cap contains higher concentrations than stalks[40] xxx
Se-Selenium xxx Brassica juncea Indian mustard xxx Rhizosphere bacteria enhance accumulation.[41] [7]
Se-Selenium xxx Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn Phytoextraction. [6][7]
Se-Selenium Low rates of Se volatilization from selenate-supplied Muskgrass (10-fold less than from selenite) may be due to a major rate limitation in the reduction of selenate to organic forms of Se in Muskgrass. Chara canescens Desv. & Lois Muskgrass xxx Muskgrass treated with selenite contains 91% of the total Se in organic forms (selenoethers and diselenides), compared with 47% in Muskgrass treated with selenate.[42] 1.9% of the total Se input is accumulated in its tissues; 0.5% is removed via biological volatilization.[43] [44]
Se-Selenium xxx Bassia scoparia
(a.k.a. Kochia scoparia)
burningbush, ragweed, summer cypress, fireball, belvedere and Mexican firebrush, Mexican fireweed U,[8] Cr, Pb, Hg, Ag, Zn Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). Phytoextraction. [1][7]
Se-Selenium xxx Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Cr, Hg, Petroleum hydrocarbures, Organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalis);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). [7]
Zn-Zinc A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(H), Mn(A), Pb(A) Origin Portugal. [1]
Zn-Zinc xxx Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Cu(H), Pb(H) Origin Japan. [1]
Zn-Zinc xxx Brassicaceae Mustards, mustard flowers, crucifers or cabbage family Hyperaccumulators: Cd, Cs, Ni, Sr Phytoextraction. [7]
Zn-Zinc xxx Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A). Larvae of Pieris brassicae do not even sample its high-Zn leaves. (Pollard and Baker, 1997) [1][7][18]
Zn-Zinc xxx Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se Phytoextraction [6][7]
Zn-Zinc xxx Helianthus annuus Sunflower xxx Phytoextraction et rhizofiltration. [7][8]
Zn-Zinc xxx Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Hg(H), Pb(H)Also Cs, Sr, U,[21] and pesticides.[22] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]
Zn-Zinc xxx Salix viminalis Common Osier Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, Petroleum hydrocarbons, Organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[7] Cd, Pb, U (S. viminalis);[8] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[9] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). [8]
Zn-Zinc A- Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Origin India. [1]
Zn-Zinc 1400 Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) Bladder campion xxx xxx Ernst et al. (1990)
Zn-Zinc xxx Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H) Native to North America. [1][3][26]
Zn-Zinc H-10,000 Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H) 48 records of plants. May acidify its own rhizosphere, which would facilitate absorption by solubilization of the metal[29] [1][3][7][30][31][32][39]
Zn-Zinc xxx Trifolium pratense Red Clover Nonmetal accumulator. Its rhizosphere is denser in bacteria than that of Thlaspi caerulescens, but T. caerulescens has relatively more metal-resistant bacteria.[29] xxx

Cs-137 activity was much smaller in leaves of larch and sycamore maple than of spruce: spruce > larch > sycamore maple.

References[edit]

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