Hardiness of plants describes their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. It is usually limited to discussions of climatic adversity. Thus a plant's ability to tolerate cold, heat, drought, flooding, or wind are typically considered measurements of hardiness. Hardiness of plants is defined by their native extent's geographic location: longitude, latitude and elevation. These attributes are often simplified to a hardiness zone. In temperate latitudes, the term most often describes resistance to cold, or "cold-hardiness," and is generally measured by the lowest temperature a plant can withstand. Hardiness of a plant is usually divided into three categories: tender, half-hardy, and hardy. Tender plants are those killed by freezing temperatures, while hardy plants survive freezing—at least down to certain temperatures, depending on the plant. "Half-hardy" is a term used especially in horticulture to describe bedding plants which are sown in heat in winter or early spring, and planted outside after all danger of frost has passed.
Plants vary a lot in their tolerance of growing conditions. The selective breeding of varieties capable of withstanding particular climates forms an important part of agriculture and horticulture. Plants adapt to changes in climate on their own to some extent. Part of the work of nursery growers of plants consists of cold hardening, or hardening off their plants, to prepare them for likely conditions in later life.
Winter-hardy plants grow during the winter, or at least remain healthy and dormant. Apart from the obvious evergreens, these include many cultivated plants, including some cabbage and broccoli, and all kinds of carrot. Some bulbs – such as tulips – need cold winters in order to bloom, while others – such as freesia – can survive a freezing winter. Many domestic plants are assigned a hardiness zone that specifies the climates in which they can survive. Winter gardens are dependent upon the cultivation of winter-hardy plants.
Various hardiness ratings are published. The most widely used is the system of Hardiness zones developed specifically for the extremely diverse range of conditions in the USA, from baking desert to frozen tundra. In contrast the UK and western Europe have an oceanic climate, and experience a narrower range of temperatures that is tempered by the presence of the Gulf Stream. This results in areas like western Scotland experiencing conditions conducive to growing subtropical plants, despite the relatively northerly latitude. The Royal Horticultural Society has published a set of hardiness ratings applicable to the United Kingdom. The ratings range from H1a to H7. H1a, higher than 15 °C (59 °F), applies to tropical plants permanently under glass in heat; while H7, below −20 °C (−4 °F), applies to very cold-tolerant plants such as heathers. Most outdoor plants in the UK fall within the range H4, −10 to −5 °C (14 to 23 °F) (hardy in the average winter) to H5, −15 to −10 °C (5 to 14 °F) (hardy in a cold winter). Hardiness can vary significantly within a single plot. For instance, the presence of a frost pocket can significantly affect the plants inside it
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- "2006 arborday.org Hardiness Zone Map". National Arbor Day Foundation. Retrieved 2007-01-07.
- "Differences between 1990 USDA Hardiness Zones and 2006 arborday.org hardiness zones reflect warmer climate". National Arbor Day Foundation. Retrieved 2007-01-07.
- Interactive Version of the 1990 USDA Hardiness Zone Map