Poonch

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Poonch
पुंछ
city
Poonch as seen from the hills
Poonch as seen from the hills
Poonch is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Poonch
Poonch
Location in Jammu and Kashmir, India
Coordinates: 33°46′N 74°06′E / 33.77°N 74.1°E / 33.77; 74.1Coordinates: 33°46′N 74°06′E / 33.77°N 74.1°E / 33.77; 74.1
Country  India
State Jammu and Kashmir
District Poonch
Settled 322 BC
Government
 • Type Municipal Council
 • Body Punch Municipal Council
Elevation 981 m (3,219 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 40,987
Languages
 • Local Urdu (official)
Main language: hindi Pahari - (Dogri)
spoken by Gujjars and Bakerwals: Gojri[1]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Poonch (ˈpu:nʧ) (also referred to as Punch) is a town and a municipal council in Poonch District in the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. Based on the Mahābhārata evidence,[2] and the evidence from the 7th-century Chinese traveler Xuanzang,[3] the districts of Poonch along with Rajauri and Abhisara were under the sway of the Republican Kambojas during epic times.[4][5][6][7][8]

Geography[edit]

Poonch is located at 33°46′N 74°06′E / 33.77°N 74.1°E / 33.77; 74.1.[9] It has an average elevation of 981 metres (3218 feet). The Pir Panjal range of mountains separates Poonch Valley from the Kashmir Valley. For a long time the only road connection between the two valleys was from Jammu. But now with the completion of the Mughal Road connecting Bufliaz in Poonch to Shopian in Kashmir, there is a direct connection between the two. It consist of 4 tehsils, Haveli, Mendhar, Surankote and Mandi.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Poonch is somewhat cooler than the rest of the Duggardesh plains. Summers are short and usually pleasant. The summer temperature generally does not rise above 31°C. Winters are cool and characterized by rainfall due to western disturbances. Snowfall is uncommon but may occur, as in December 2011. Rainfall is 669 millimetres (26.3 in) in the wettest months.

Climate data for Poonch
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19
(66)
20
(68)
31
(88)
32
(90)
33
(91)
34.5
(94.1)
32
(90)
31
(88)
28
(82)
26
(79)
24
(75)
21
(70)
34.5
(94.1)
Average high °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
19.9
(67.8)
23.6
(74.5)
25.9
(78.6)
27.3
(81.1)
29.6
(85.3)
31.5
(88.7)
29.7
(85.5)
22.6
(72.7)
21.7
(71.1)
16.8
(62.2)
10.1
(50.2)
26.1
(79)
Average low °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
4.7
(40.5)
13.6
(56.5)
16.0
(60.8)
19.4
(66.9)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
22.0
(71.6)
18.0
(64.4)
16.4
(61.5)
9.6
(49.3)
1.5
(34.7)
17.7
(63.9)
Record low °C (°F) −4.9
(23.2)
−3
(27)
3
(37)
6
(43)
7
(45)
9
(48)
12
(54)
8
(46)
12
(54)
4
(39)
2
(36)
−4.4
(24.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
Rainfall mm (inches) 50.0
(1.969)
46.4
(1.827)
53.2
(2.094)
26.3
(1.035)
16.0
(0.63)
51.8
(2.039)
283.4
(11.157)
344.5
(13.563)
123.9
(4.878)
38.1
(1.5)
11.9
(0.469)
42.2
(1.661)
1,087.7
(42.823)
Source #1: BBC Weather
Source #2: IMD

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[10] Poonch had a population of 40,987. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Poonch has an average literacy rate of 79%: male literacy is 84%, and female literacy is 77%. In Poonch, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.

History[edit]

Poonch has witnessed many historical eras. Around 326 BC when Alexander the Great invaded the lower Jhelum belt to fight with Porus, this region was known as Dravabhisar. In the 6th Century AD, the famous Chinese traveller Huien Tsang passed through this area. According to his observation, this region was known as part of Kashmir also known as mini kashmir. Around 850 AD Poonch became a sovereign state ruled by Raja Nar, who was basically a horse trader. According to Rajtrangani, Raja Trilochan Pal of Poonch gave a tough fight to Mahmood Ghaznvi, who invaded this area in 1020 A.D.

In 1596, the Mughal emperor Jahangir made Raja Siraj-Ud-Din Rathore, the descendant of Rao Jodha and Rao Suraj Singh, the new ruler of Poonch. Siraj-Ud-Din and his descendants Raja Shahbaz Khan Rathore, Raja Abdul Razak Rathore, Raja Rustam Rathore and Raja Bahadur Rathore ruled this area up to 1798 AD. From 1819 A.D -1850 A.D Poonch remained a part of Khalsa Darbar, and it remained under the occupation of the Sikh Empire until 1850. In 1850 A.D Dogra Raja Moti Singh laid foundation of Dogra Raj in Poonch.

Transport[edit]

There is a small airport. In addition, a railway is under construction.

A bus across the LOC, the Poonch-Rawalakot bus, has helped to re-establish ties across the border.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://poonch.gov.in/BasicDetail/AboutPoonch/AboutPoonch.asp
  2. ^ MBH 7.4.5; 7/91/39-40.
  3. ^ Watters, Yuan Chawang, Vol I, p 284.
  4. ^ See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, 219/220, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee.
  5. ^ A History of India, p 269-71, N. R. Ray, N. K. Sinha.
  6. ^ Journal of Indian History, P 304, University of Allahabad. Department of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala - 1921; Military History of India, 1980, p 38, Hemendra Chandra Kar - History.
  7. ^ Bimbisāra to Aśoka: with an appendix on the later Saud, 1977, p 16, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya - India - 1977.
  8. ^ Purana Index , 1992, p 79, A. B. L. Awasthi.
  9. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Poonch
  10. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hutchinson, J. & J. PH Vogel (1933). History of the Panjab Hill States, Vol. I. 1st edition: Govt. Printing, Pujab, Lahore, 1933. Reprint 2000. Department of Language and Culture, Himachal Pradesh. Chapter XXIII "Punch State", pp. 698–724.