Post-vasectomy pain syndrome

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is a chronic and sometimes debilitating genital pain condition that may develop immediately or several years after vasectomy.[1][2][3] Because this condition is a syndrome, there is no single treatment method, therefore efforts focus on mitigating/relieving the individual patient's specific pain.[1][2][4][5] When pain in the epididymides is the primary symptom, post-vasectomy pain syndrome is often described as congestive epididymitis.

Symptoms[edit]

  • Persistent pain in the genitalia and/or genital area(s).
  • Groin pain upon physical exertion.
  • Pain when achieving an erection and/or engaging in sexual intercourse.
  • Pain upon ejaculation.

Any of the aforementioned pain conditions/syndromes can persist for years after vasectomy and affect as many as one in three vasectomized men.[6][7] The range of PVPS pain can be mild/annoying to the less-likely extreme debilitating pain experienced by a smaller number of sufferers in this group. There is a continuum of pain severity between these two extremes. Pain is thought to be caused by any of the following, either singularly or in combination: testicular backpressure, overfull epididymides, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, sperm granulomas, and nerve entrapment. Pain can be present continuously in the form of orchialgia and/or congestive epididymitis or it can be situational, such as pain during intercourse, ejaculation or physical exertion.

Mechanisms of pain[edit]

There is a noticeable increase in pressure within the vas deferens on the testicular side following vasectomy.[8] The epididymides of vasectomized men are often swollen and distended from backpressure effects.[8] The efferent ducts and seminiferous tubules of the testes are also impacted by backpressure, leading to an increase in area and thickness.[9] Backpressure from blockage of the vas deferens causes a rupture in the epididymis, called an "epididymal blowout", in over half of vasectomy patients.[3] Sperm sometimes leak from the vas deferens of vasectomized men, forming lesions in the scrotum known as sperm granulomas. Some sperm granulomas can be painful.[10] Paradoxically, the presence of a sperm granuloma at the vasectomy site prevents epididymal pressure build-up, perforation, and the formation of an epididymal sperm granuloma. It thus lessens the likelihood of epididymal discomfort.[11]

As part of the reaction of the body to the surgical wounds of vasectomy, the body produces hard scar-like tissue. Clamping the vas deferens can produce muscle disruption and fibrosis.[12] As the diameter of the vas lumen is less than the thickness of the wall, the thick muscle layers can easily become disrupted, leading to sperm accumulation and extravasation. Cysts often form from the fluid that spreads between the muscle layers.[12]

Nerves can become trapped in the fibrous tissue caused by vasectomy. This pain is often heightened during sexual intercourse and ejaculation because, with arousal and ejaculation, muscles elevate the testis. There are several nerves that run parallel to the vas deferens that may be cut or damaged during vasectomy.[13]

One study found that the vas deferens exhibits two periodic forms of electrical activity on an electrovasogram, slow pacesetter potentials and fast action potentials. In vasectomized men, the pacesetter potentials on the testicular side exhibit an irregular rhythm.[9]

One study using ultrasound found that the epididymides of patients suffering from post-vasectomy pain syndrome were enlarged and full of cystic growths.[14]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment depends on the proximate cause. In one study, it was reported that 9 of 13 men who underwent vasectomy reversal in an attempt to relieve post-vasectomy pain syndrome became pain-free, though the followup was only one month in some cases.[2] Another study found that 24 of 32 men had relief after vasectomy reversal. [15]

Nerve entrapment is treated with surgery to free the nerve from the scar tissue, or to cut the nerve.[13] One study reported that denervation of the spermatic cord provided complete relief at the first follow-up visit in 13 of 17 cases, and that the other four patients reported improvement.[7] As nerves may regrow, long-term studies are needed.

One study found that epididymectomy provided relief for 50% of patients with post-vasectomy pain syndrome.[16]

Orchiectomy is recommended usually only after other surgeries have failed.[16]

Incidence[edit]

A phone and postal survey of 172 patients 4 years after vasectomy found that 15% of respondents experienced chronic testicular discomfort that was troublesome and that 33% of respondents experienced some chronic testicular discomfort.[6]

A retrospective postal survey of 396 men found that 4% had significant genital pain for more than one year that required surgical intervention.[7]

Another study contacted 470 vasectomy patients and received 182 responses, finding that 18.7% of respondents experienced chronic genital pain with 2.2% of respondents experiencing pain that adversely affected quality of life.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Potts JM (2008). Genitourinary Pain And Inflammation. Humana Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-126-4_13. 
  2. ^ a b c Nangia AK, Myles JL, Thomas AJ JR (2000). "Vasectomy reversal for the post-vasectomy pain syndrome: a clinical and histological evaluation". J. Urol. 164 (6): 1939–42. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)66923-6. PMID 11061886. 
  3. ^ a b Christiansen C, Sandlow J (2003). "Testicular Pain Following Vasectomy: A Review of Postvasectomy Pain Syndrome". Journal of Andrology 24 (3): 293–8. PMID 12721203. 
  4. ^ Manikandan R, Srirangam SJ, Pearson E, Collins GN (2004). "Early and late morbidity after vasectomy: a comparison of chronic scrotal pain at 1 and 10 years". BJU International 93 (4): 93, 571–574. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2003.04663.x. PMID 15008732. 
  5. ^ Awsare NS, Krishnan J, Boustead GB, Hanbury DC, McNicholas TA (2005). "Complications of vasectomy". Ann R Coll Surg Engl 87 (6): 87: 406–410. doi:10.1308/003588405X71054. PMC 1964127. PMID 16263006. 
  6. ^ a b McMahon A, Buckley J, Taylor A, Lloyd S, Deane R, Kirk D (1992). "Chronic testicular pain following vasectomy". British Journal of Urology 69 (2): 188–191. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1992.tb15494.x. PMID 1537032. 
  7. ^ a b c Ahmed I, Rasheed S, White C, Shaikh N (1997). "The incidence of post-vasectomy chronic testicular pain and the role of nerve stripping (denervation) of the spermatic cord in its management". British Journal of Urology 79 (2): 269–270. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1997.32221.x. PMID 9052481. 
  8. ^ a b Jarvis LJ, Dubbins PA (1989). "Changes in the epididymis after vasectomy: sonographic findings.". AJR American Journal of Roentgenology 152 (3): 531–4. doi:10.2214/ajr.152.3.531. PMID 2644777. 
  9. ^ a b Shafik A (1996). "Electrovasogram in normal and vasectomized men and patients with obstructive azoospermia and absent vas deferens". Archives of Andrology 36 (1): 67–79. doi:10.3109/01485019608987884. PMID 8824668. 
  10. ^ Schmidt S (1976). "Spermatic granuloma: an often painful lesion". Fertility and Sterility 31 (2): 178–81. PMID 761679. 
  11. ^ Shapiro E, Silber S (1979). "Open-ended vasectomy, sperm granuloma, and postvasectomy orchialgia". Fertility and Sterility 32 (5): 546–550. PMID 499585. 
  12. ^ a b Shandling B, Janik J (1981). "The vulnerability of the vas deferens". Journal of Pediatric Surgery 16 (4): 461–464. doi:10.1016/S0022-3468(81)80007-3. PMID 7277139. 
  13. ^ a b Pabst R, Martin O, Lippert H (1979). "Is the low fertility rate after vasovasostomy caused by nerve resection during vasectomy?". Fertility and Sterility 31 (3): 316–320. PMID 437166. 
  14. ^ Selikowitz SM, Schned AR (1985). "A late post-vasectomy syndrome.". The Journal of Urology 134 (3): 494–7. PMID 4032545. 
  15. ^ Myers SA, Mershon CE, Fuchs EF (1997). "Vasectomy reversal for treatment of the post-vasectomy pain syndrome". J. Urol. 157 (2): 518–520. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)65191-7. PMID 8996346. 
  16. ^ a b Chen TF, Ball RY (1991). "Epididymectomy for post-vasectomy pain: histological review". Br. J. Urol. 68 (4): 407–413. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1991.tb15362.x. PMID 1933163. 
  17. ^ Choe J, Kirkemo A (1996). "Questionnaire-based outcomes study of nononcological post-vasectomy complications". The Journal of Urology 155 (4): 1284–1286. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)66244-X. PMID 8632554. 

External links[edit]