Rachel Russell, Lady Russell

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Not to be confused with Rachel Renee Russell. ‹See Tfd›
Rachel, Lady Russell
Rachel wriothesley lady russell j cochran v2.jpg
Lady Russell, engraving by John Cochran after a portrait by Samuel Cooper
Spouse(s) Francis, Lord Vaughan
William, Lord Russell
Noble family Wriothesley
Father Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton
Mother Rachel de Massue
Born c. 1636
Titchfield
Died 29 September 1723(1723-09-29)
Southampton House, Bloomsbury, London
A 19th-century painting depicting Rachel and her children visiting her husband Lord Russell in the Tower of London sometime before his execution

Rachel, Lady Russell (née Lady Rachel Wriothesley /ˈrəθsli/[1] REYE-əths-lee; c. 1636 – 29 September 1723)[2] was an English noblewoman, heiress, and author. Her second husband was William, Lord Russell, who was implicated in the Rye House Plot and later executed. A collection of the many letters she wrote to her husband and other distinguished men was published in 1773.

Family and early years[edit]

Lady Rachel was born in about 1636 at Titchfield, Hampshire, the second eldest daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, by his first wife, Rachel de Massue, daughter of Daniel de Massue, Seigneur de Ruvigny and Madeleine de Pinot des Fontaines. Lady Rachel received a religious upbringing, and remained throughout her life, a devout member of the Church of England.[3]

In her youth, she was described as having been remarkable for her elegance of form, personal beauty, and graceful manners.[4]

Marriages and issue[edit]

In 1653, Lady Rachel married her first husband, Francis Vaughan, Lord Vaughan, the eldest son of Richard Vaughan, 2nd Earl of Carbery. Upon their marriage, she went to live with her father-in-law at Golden Grove in Carmarthen, Wales. In 1655, she gave birth to a child, whose sex and name was not recorded as it died shortly after its birth. She became a widow in 1667, which was the same year her father died. She and her older sister, Elizabeth, Viscountess Campden, inherited his entire estate. Lady Campden received the family seat of Titchfield, while the share which Lady Vaughan inherited was the domain of Stratton, also in Hampshire. Rachel remained with the Viscountess Campden at Titchfield for some time after their father's death.

In 1669, Lady Vaughan married her second husband, William, Lord Russell, who was three years her junior. They obtained a marriage licence at Titchfield on 31 July 1669. The marriage was described as having been happy, and Lord Russell appreciated his wife's intelligence, virtue, affection and piety.[5] In 1678, upon the death of her childless brother-in-law, Francis, the couple became known as Lord and Lady Russell. Together they had three children:

Rye House Plot[edit]

In 1683, Lord Russell was one of the conspirators in the Rye House Plot, which was a plan to ambush King Charles II and his brother, James, Duke of York, on their way back to London from the Newmarket races. The plot was disclosed to the government. Lord Russell, unlike his co-conspirators, refused to escape to Holland. He was accused of promising his assistance in an insurrection and bringing about the death of the King and the Duke of York. On 26 June 1683, he was sent to the Tower of London, and shortly afterwards, tried and convicted of treason. Lady Russell had acted as his secretary during his trial where he was sentenced to death by beheading. Upon his condemnation, Lady Russell laboured diligently to save her husband's life; she was aided by her father-in-law, the Earl of Bedford, who offered a sum of between £50,000 to £100,000 for a pardon to his son. Lady Russell even threw herself at the King's feet, pleading for him to grant clemency to her husband; however, the King was unmoved by her tearful pleas, and refused to abrogate the death sentence.[6]

On the day before her husband's execution, Lady Russell visited him in the Tower and they embraced one last time. The following morning, on 21 July 1683, he was beheaded at Lincoln's Inn Fields. Several days later, she wrote the King a letter.[7]

The attainder against her husband was reversed by a bill which was passed in Parliament and received the royal signature in the reign of William and Mary.[8]

Legacy[edit]

Throughout her long life, Lady Russell was an avid letter-writer as well as an author.[9] Her numerous letters, which were later published in 1773, were written mainly to her husband but also to many distinguished men such as John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury. They were of good quality and exceptionally well-written, and her correspondence provides a personal insight into 17th-century English domestic life. In addition to her letters, Rachel also wrote diaries, essays, a catechism, and Instructions for Children.

Seven engraved portraits of Rachel Wriothesley are displayed in the National Portrait Gallery in London.

Lady Russell died at Southampton House, Bloomsbury, London on 29 September 1723, the anniversary of her husband's birth; she was about 87 years old. Lady Russell was buried beside her husband on 8 October 1723 in the Bedford Chapel at the Parish Church of Chenies, Buckinghamshire.

See also[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wells, J. C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. 3rd edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2008.
  2. ^ the Peerage.com
  3. ^ James Anderson, Memorable Women of the Puritan Times, p.274, Google Books, retrieved on 30-10-09
  4. ^ Anderson, p.274
  5. ^ Anderson, p.277
  6. ^ Anderson, p.290
  7. ^ Anderson, p.302
  8. ^ Anderson, p.321
  9. ^ Cambridge, Orlando Project. Lady Rachel Russell
  • James Anderson, Memorable Women of the Puritan Times, 2003, Google Books, retrieved 30-10-09
  • G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Volume II, p. 81
  • thePeerage.com