Robert Friedrich Wilms (September 9, 1824 – September 23, 1880) was a German surgeon born in Arnswalde.
He studied medicine in Berlin, and in 1848 became an assistant at the Bethanien Hospital in Berlin. In 1852 he was named an ordinirenden physician and from 1862 onward, he served as Chefarzt (chief physician) at Bethanien Hospital. Wilms was a catalyst in establishing Bethanien Hospital as a center of learning for students and young surgical assistants. Among of his better known assistants in Berlin were Edmund Rose (1836–1914, Heinrich Irenaeus Quincke (1842–1922), Ernst Georg Ferdinand Küster (1839–1930) and Werner Körte (1853–1937). During the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian Wars, Wilms distinguished himself in his role as consultant Generalarzt (surgeon-general).