Robert Grant Aitken
|Robert Grant Aitken|
Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951)
December 31, 1864|
|Died||October 29, 1951
|Institutions||University of California|
Born in Jackson, California, he attended Williams College in Massachusetts and graduated with an undergraduate degree in 1887. From 1887–1891, he worked as a mathematics instructor at Livermore, California, then received his M.A. from Williams College in 1892. He became a professor of mathematics at the College of the Pacific, another liberal arts school. He was offered an assistant astronomer position at Lick Observatory in California in 1895.
He began a systematically study of double stars, measuring their positions and calculating their orbits around one another. From 1899, in collaboration with W. J. Hussey, he methodically created a very large catalog of such stars. This ongoing work was published in Lick Observatory bulletins. In 1905, Hussey left and Aitken pressed on with the survey alone, and by 1915, he had discovered roughly 3,100 new binary stars, with an additional 1,300 discovered by Hussey. The results were published in 1932 and entitled New General Catalogue of Double Stars Within 120° of the North Pole, with the orbit information enabling astronomers to calculate stellar mass statistics for a large number of stars. For his work in cataloguing binary stars, he was awarded the prestigious Bruce Medal in 1926.
During his career, Aitken measured positions and computed orbits for comets and natural satellites of planets. In 1908 he joined an eclipse expedition to Flint Island in the central Pacific Ocean. His work Binary Stars was published in 1918, with a second edition published in 1935. After joining the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1894, Aitken was elected to serve as president in 1899 and 1915 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. In 1932, he delivered the Darwin Lecture before the Royal Astronomical Society in 1932, where he was an associate member. From 1918 to 1928, he was chair of the double star committee for the International Astronomical Union.
Aitken was partly deaf and used a hearing aid. He married Jessie Thomas around 1888, and had three sons and one daughter. Jessie died in 1943. His grandson, Robert Baker Aitken, was a widely known Zen Buddhist teacher and author.
- Lalande Prize of the French Academy (1906, with William Hussey)
- Bruce Medal (1926)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1932)
- Honorary Sc.D. from College of the Pacific, Williams College, University of Arizona, and an honorary LL.D. from the University of California
Named after him
- Daintith, John (1981). "Aitken, Robert Grant". Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists 1. New York: Facts On File, Inc. p. 9. ISBN 0-87196-396-5.
- Jeffers, Hamilton M. (February 1952), "Robert Grant Aitken, 1864-1951", Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 64 (376): 5, Bibcode:1952PASP...64....5J, doi:10.1086/126408
- Bruce Medal page
- Awarding of Bruce Medal
- Awarding of RAS gold medal
- Biographical Memoir (1958) by Van Den Bos
- Double Star Observer, Cataloguer, Statistician, and Observatory Director
- Additional Photos from the Emilio Segre Visual Archive, American Institute of Physics
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
- IrAJ 2 (1952) 27 (one paragraph)
- JO 35 (1952) 25 (in French)
- JRASC 46 (1952) 28
- MNRAS 112 (1952) 271
- PASP 64 (1952) 5