Scanian law (Danish: Skånske Lov, Swedish: Skånelagen) is the oldest Danish provincial law and one of the first Nordic provincial laws to be written down. It was used in the geographic region of Danish Skåneland, which at the time included Scania, Halland, Blekinge and the island of Bornholm. It was also used for a short period on the island of Zealand. According to some scholars, the Scanian Law was first set down between 1202 and 1216, around the same time it was translated into Latin by the Danish Archbishop Anders Sunesøn.
The Scanian law was recorded in several medieval manuscripts, among others the Codex Runicus dated to around 1300, written entirely in medieval runes on parchment. The text of Codex Runicus consists of the Scanian Law and the Scanian Ecclesiastical Law (Skånske Kirkelov), a settlement detailing the administration of justice agreed upon by the Scanians and the archbishop in the late 12th century, as well as a section not related to law, also written in runes, but in another hand.
The Scanian Law manuscripts are collections of the customary law practiced in the land. They are records of existing legal codes that addressed issues such as heritage, property rights, use of common land, farming and fishing rights, marriage, murder, rape, vandalism and the role of different authorities. In the oldest version of the law, ordeal by fire is used as evidence, but later Scanian Law manuscripts reflect the influence of the statutory instruments issued under Valdemar II of Denmark shortly after the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, and trial by ordeal has been abolished.
Besides provisions reflecting older customs, the manuscripts contain law provisions that demonstrate the growing influence of the Crown in Denmark. The different manuscripts are marked by a state of flux in the legal system during and after Valdemar II's reign and sometimes contain conflicting notions of what is considered valid under law. According to some historians, the ideological battle between royalty and local power structures (the things) taking place in the Nordic countries during this time is evident in the Scanian Law manuscripts. Andreas Sunesøn's translation of the Scanian Law uses the word "patria" as an equivalent of "kingdom", which was an uncommon use of the word in Scandinavia at this time. Patria often meant "tingområde", a region united through a common thing (assembly), and according to the Icelandic historian Sverrir Jacobsson, the use of the word to denote "kingdom" was an ideological statement meant to convey that "one should not have other patriae than the kingdom". Jacobsson states that the use of patria in this sense promoted a "royal patriotism with Christian connotations", also supported by Saxo in Gesta Danorum, an ideology that slowly gained acceptance during this era. This royalty-centered ideology was in conflict with the patriotism expressed by the inhabitants of the different Nordic patriae, who instead stressed loyalty primarily to the area of their thing. When a rebellion broke out Scania, with demands that the king hand royal government in the area to local officials rather than to "foreigners" (i.e. non-Scanians), the servant who was ordered to quell the rebellion by Bishop Absalon refused the order, proclaiming a higher duty to his people than to his master. Similar loyalties to the thing area are expressed in Västgötalagen, where people from Sweden and Småland are not considered "natives", and where the law made a difference between "alzmenn" and "ymumenn".
Codex Runicus (AM 28 8vo) is the most famous of several manuscripts from the 13th to 15th centuries containing handwritten copies of the Scanian Law. The second part of the Codex Runicus manuscript consists of two short historical texts: a fragment of a list of Danish kings and a chronicle beginning with the legendary Danish king Hadding's son Frode and ending with Eric VI of Denmark. Following the historical texts is a description of the oldest border between Denmark and Sweden and at the last leaf, the notes and words of the oldest preserved piece of music known in Denmark, a verse with accompanying musical notation on a four-line staff - the first musical notations written in Scandinavia.
Another well-known manuscript is Anders Sunesøn's 13th-century Latin paraphrase of the Scanian Law (AM 37 4to), created for an international readership. According to linguist Einar Haugen, the Latin paraphrase was a difficult task for the 13th century scribes: "In his desperate efforts to find Latin equivalents for Danish legal terms, the archbishop is driven to insert expressions in Danish, describing them as being so called in materna lingua vulgariter, or natale ydioma, or vulgari nostro, or most often lingua patria." AM 37 4to also contains a vernacular version of the Scanian Ecclesiastical Law, to which it owes much of its claim to fame. In a footnote in the margin of the epilogue to the Scanian Ecclesiastical Law, a second 13th-14th century hand has added a note in the margin known as the Skåningestrofe (the "Scanian Stanza"). The younger Scanian scribe's comment reads:
Hauí that skanunga ærliki mææn toco vithar oræt aldrigh æn.
Let it be known that Scanians are honorable men who have never tolerated injustice.—
Another version of the Scanian Law is recorded in the composite volume Ledreborg 12 12mo (dated to the 14th century), which contains an adaptation of the Scanian Law for use within the area of Zealandic judicature. Apart from the Scanian Law and the Scanian Ecclesiastical Law, the Ledreborg manuscript has other Scanian legal material: the Scanian version of Eric V of Denmark’s Vordenborg Decree of March 19, 1282 and his Nyborg Decree for Scania of May 26, 1284.
Oldest known manuscript
The oldest known version of the Scanian Law and the Scanian Ecclesiastical Law can be found in a vellum manuscript from around 1225-1275 (SKB B74 or Cod Holm B74), held at the Swedish Royal Library in Stockholm. The manuscript was continuously revised and edited up until the 16th century. The first leaf of the Scanian Law in SKB B74 is missing and has been replaced with a section written on paper in the 16th century. Apart from the Scanian Law, the manuscript also has 14th and 15th-century fishing right decrees by Margaret I of Denmark and Eric of Pomerania; city privileges for Malmö from 1415, 1446 and 1489; Scanian trading rights established by Christian III of Denmark in 1546; and a medieval maritime law for Visby.
The Scanian Law section in SKB B74 is divided into 234 chapters, and it is the largest and oldest section. Three of the Scanian Law chapters in this manuscript deal with trial by ordeal. In these portions, the script is influenced by Carolingian minuscule, with characteristically rounded shapes. Red, yellow and green palmette ornamented capitals appear in the script. The dating suggested by historians, based on the content, is supported by paleographers and also by linguists. The language in the oldest parts of the manuscript still retained much of the grammatical complexity of Old Norse; nouns, adjectives and pronouns are declined in four grammatical cases, nouns have three grammatical genders and verbs have five grammatical moods.
Leaf 90 of the Scanian Law section in SKB B74 concerns fishing rights and procedures to follow when a farmer has constructed a pond to collect water to run his mill and the pond causes flooding and destruction of other farmers' land. Leaf 91 deals with crimes of passion. The text from the rubric on leaf 91r reads:
Based on a modern Danish translation by Merete K. Jørgensen, the approximate modern English equivalent would be: "If a man finds another man in bed with his wife, and if the farmer kills the fornicator in bed with her, then he shall take the bedding to the thing, along with two men as witness that he killed the man in bed with her and not in another place. When this is done, the man shall be laid outside the churchyard on the ground, and there shall be no fine for him. If the fornicator is wounded in bed with another man's wife and if he survives, makes a confession to a priest and gets absolution, but later dies from the wounds, then he shall be buried in the churchyard and the farmer shall pay no fine for him."
Another medieval Scanian manuscript housed in Stockholm is SKB B69 4to from around 1325, with a version of the Scanian Law likely written by a scribe from Malmö, according to Danish linguist Britta Olrik Frederiksen. The manuscript's Malmö connection has been postulated "to explain a number of linguistically eccentric passages".
A third early version of the Scanian Law exists in SKB B76 4to, also housed in Stockholm, estimated to have been written in 1325. It contains parts of an early version of the Scanian Law and the Scanian Ecclesiastical Law, thought to be close to the first recorded versions from the late 12th century or early 13th century which have not been preserved. SKB B76 4to is locally referred to as the "Hadorphian manuscript", after the 17th-century Swedish scholar Johan Hadorph (1630–93), a colleague of Olof Rudbeck's at Uppsala University, who edited the manuscript in 1676. Johan Hadorph, along with Olaus Verelius (1618–82), the leaders of the Swedish Hyperborean movement, were in charge of the Swedish Academy of Antiquities at Uppsala University, instituted by Count Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie. Some of the manuscripts edited at the Swedish Academy of Antiquities were bought from the widow of late Danish professor Stephanius in 1652 and others were war booty from the war of 1658. Along with Poland, Germany and the Baltic States, Denmark was the country hardest hit by Swedish depredations undertaken to bring literature to Sweden during the 17th century wars, at a time when the country "did not have money to spend on new acquisitions and had limited access to newly published literature", according to the Swedish Royal Library. In the article "War booty as a method of acquisition", the library states that the "war-booty came as a substantial increment to the newly established university library", although it was Bohemia and Moravia that were "robbed of perhaps the most exacting prizes". Swedish authorities have so far denied the majority of requests for restitution made by other countries. Representatives for the Swedish Royal Library argue that "restitution of former war booty would engender chaos, with ambiguous legal consequences" and state that the library will instead "take the best possible care of the objects in question and make them available to the public as these are now part of our common cultural heritage."
The library thus holds large collections of medieval manuscripts from other countries and regions, including the largest collection of Icelandic manuscripts outside Iceland. Also part of the collection is the oldest known manuscript of the Law Code of Jutland (Jyske Lov), Cod Holm C 37, dated to around 1280. As an alternative to repatriation, the director of the Swedish Royal Library agreed to digitize this and some other manuscripts (including Codex Gigas). The Danish Royal Library in Copenhagen has set up a website to display the digital facsimile of the Jutland law code and the Internet thus provides a form of "digital repatriation of cultural heritage" according to Ivan Boserup, Keeper of Manuscripts and Rare Books, The Royal Library, Copenhagen. However, the medieval Scanian manuscripts held at the Royal Library of Sweden are not part of the cultural heritage offered for public view in digitized versions.
Digital files of a 15th-century version of the Scanian Law is provided by the project Medieval Manuscripts at Lund University Library - Preservation and Access at the St. Laurentius Digital Manuscript Library, Lund University, Scania.
A number of medieval Scandinavian provincial and national law collections have been preserved. A nearly intact manuscript of the Norwegian Gulating Law has been preserved in Codex Rantzovianus (137 4to) from around 1250, and three older fragments of this law (AM 315e folio, AM 315f folio and NRA 1 B) have been dated to the period between 1200 and 1250 by some scholars and to as early as 1180 by others. Grágás (Grey Goose), the oldest Icelandic law code, is preserved in two vellum manuscripts written shortly after 1250.
Like the Icelandic law code, the Scanian Law was not put into writing on the initiative of a king. Scania had its own thing or parliament, as well as regional parliaments within the land. The dates cited below are the dates of the oldest verifiable extant copy of some Danish, Norwegian and Swedish law codes; various laws have been asserted to be older and thing-derived provincial laws clearly predate these recorded laws. In the timeline below, blue bars denote provincial laws while pink bars denote national laws.
References and notes
- Jørgensen. Merete K. (1999). "Det danske sprog i den middelalderlige bog". In Levende Ord & Lysende Billeder - Den middelalderlige bogkultur i Danmark. Det Kongelige Bibliotek, 1999, pp. 185-192. In Danish. Online version retrieved 23 February 2007.
- The Codex Runicus can be found at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.
- AM 37 4to: Anders Sunesøns parafrase af Skånske lov på latin (bl. 7r-58v) og Skånske kirkelov på dansk (bl. 59r-62r). Scanned version from The Arnamagnæan Institute at the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen. In Danish. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
- The thing met at regular intervals, legislated, elected chieftains and petty kings, and judged according to oral law, memorized and recited by the "law speaker" (the judge).
- Jakobsson, Sverrir (1999). "Defining a Nation: Popular and Public Identity in the Middle Ages." Scandinavian Journal of History 24, pp. 94-96.
- Gesta Danorum, p. 525. Quoted in Jacobsson, "Defining a Nation: Popular and Public Identity in the Middle Ages", p. 96.
- Some other manuscripts are AM37 4, AM41 4, B74, B76, B79, B69, C54 (Sth C54). See source list at Kildeartikler. Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab (DSL). In Danish. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
- Manuscript Department. Skaansk Lovhaanskrift. The Royal Library of Denmark. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
- Krabbe, Niels (2007). "The Earliest Evidences of Musical Activities". In Gyldendal Leksikon, published online by The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark at Cultural Denmark: Music. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
- Haugen, Einar (1991). "The Mother Tongue". In Cooper, Robert L.; Spolsky, Bernard. The Influence of Language on Culture and Thought: Essays in Honor of Joshua A. Fishman's Sixty Fifth Birthday. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 75–84. ISBN 3-11-012806-3. p. 77.
- Petersen, Erik (1999). Levende ord & lysende billeder - Essays. Den middelalderlige bogkultur i Danmark. Det Kongelige Bibliotek Moesgård Museum, 1999. ISBN 87-7023-395-0, p. 42.
- Frederiksen, Britta Olrik (2002). "The History of Old Nordic Manuscripts IV: Old Danish". In Bandle, Oskar; Elmevik, Lennart et al. The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages 1. Walter De Gruyter. pp. 819–23. ISBN 3-11-014876-5.
- Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming (2002). "Nordic Language History and the History of Ideas I: Humanism". In Bandle, Oskar; Elmevik, Lennart et al. The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages 1. Walter De Gruyter. pp. 354–62. ISBN 3-11-014876-5. p. 358: "The term 'hyperborean' has been taken from odes by Pindar and Horace, literally meaning 'people living north of the north wind (Boreas). [Olaus Verelius, the founder] perpetuated Johannes Magnus' viewpoint that human culture began in Sweden with the Goths; [...] The height of the nationalistic theory of Gothic origins can be found in the work of Olof Rudbeck".
- Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming (2002). "Nordic language history and the history of ideas I: Humanism". In The Nordic Languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. Eds. Oskar Bandle et al., Vol I. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014876-5, p. 358: "King Gustav Adolph appointed two antiquarians in 1630 to gather Swedish runic texts. In 1652, Count Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie bought the library and collections of the late Danish professor Stephanius from his poverty-stricken widow, in 1658 he acquired the famous library of Danish nobleman Jørgen Seefeld as war booty, and in 1667 he instituted a Swedish Academy of Antiquities at Uppsala, stimulating some fruitful activity."
- KB. "War booty as a method of acquisition". Codex Gigas: War booty. National Library of Sweden. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
- Seidel, Stefan (1991). "Dyrgripar byten från 1600-talet". Populär Historia, 4/1991. (In Swedish). Retrieved 23 October 2007. (The author states that the most famous case of restitution date from the 1970s, when Olof Palme returned war booty to Poland, taken in Warszawa in 1655. In 1990, a medieval law manuscript from the Faroe Islands, not taken as war booty, was also returned.)
- Sverige behåller sina krigsbyten. SvD online, 30 March 2005. (In Swedish). Retrieved 23 October 2007. (The article reports that the mayor of Ventspils in Latvia requested President Vaira Vike-Freiberga to ask for the return of war booty from Sweden and that the Swedish authorities intended to stress that "Sweden will keep its war booty".)
- Munkhammar, Lars. Byte är byte och kommer aldrig mer igen. SvD online, 20 July 2002. (In Swedish). Retrieved 23 October 2007. (In this article, written by a librarian at Uppsala University library, the author argues that since Hugo Grotius determined already in the 17th century that war booty according to contemporary laws was not to be considered stolen property, there is no legal or moral basis for repatriation of 17th century war booty today.)
- KB. Utländska handskrifter. National Library of Sweden. (In Swedish). Retrieved 23 October 2007.
- Riis, Thomas. Datering af håndskriftet Codex Holmiensis 37. Royal Library, Copenhagen. (In Danish). Retrieved 26 October 2007. For the digital files, see Codex Holmiensis: Jyske Lov.
- Boserup, Ivan (2005). "The Manuscript and the Internet: digital repatriation of cultural heritage". IFLA Journal 31:2, 2005, pp. 169-173.
- For the medieval manuscripts made available through the Swedish Royal Library's website (including one provincial law, Västgötalagen), see Fornsvenska handskrifter. A complete digital publication of Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna is available at Suecia antique.
- Provincial law of Scania (1450-1500). Lund University Library, Medeltidshandskrift 41.
- Rindal, Magnus (2004). "Dei eldste norske kristenrettane." Religionsskiftet i Norden. Brytinger mellomnordisk og europeisk kultur 800-1200 e.Kr. Occasional papers 6. Oslo. (In Norwegian).
- Helle, Knut (2001). Gulatinget og Gulatingslova. Leikanger. (In Norwegian).
- Iceland's earliest writings and some well-known manuscripts. The Árni Magnússon Institute in Iceland. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- Sawyer, Birgit; Sawyer, Peter H. (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: From Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800-1500. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1739-2.