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Shingeki (新劇?, literally "New drama") was the Japanese retelling of Western realist theatre during the late 19th century through to the early 20th century. Retellings included the works of Western writers such as Henrik Ibsen, Anton Chekhov, Maxim Gorky, and Eugene O'Neill, and reflected the styles of Russian proscenium theatre. Some of the elements included realistic/foreign costumes, self-contained plots, and, when transferred to film, close-ups. Hogetsu Shimamura and Kaoru Osanai were central in the development of shingeki.[1][2]