Shoe insert

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A removable insole which accomplishes any of a number of purposes, including daily wear comfort, foot and joint pain relief from arthritis, overuse, injuries, and other causes, orthopedic correction, smell reduction, athletic performance. Insertable insoles may contain built-in arch supports.

Types of inserts[edit]

Orthopedic inserts[edit]

Main article: Lower-limb orthoses

There are various forms of orthopaedic inserts available all with one common aim of correcting the lower limbs. These orthotic insoles are designed to re-align the foot into its correct position to alleviate pain and discomfort. There are many types of orthotics which target certain biomechanical conditions; these types of devices are usually named after the foot condition associated with them. The most common causes for heel pain are plantar fasciitis, tendonitis and bursitis.

The use of lateral wedge insoles as a therapy for persons with symptomatic medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee does not relieve pain or increase functionality.[1] Additionally, persons with this condition do not benefit from neutral heel wedges or lateral heel wedges with subtalar strapping, and some evidence suggests that people who do not use these things may have fewer symptoms than those who do.[1] Available research says that the evidence showing that lateral heel wedges can be effective at all is limited, and for that reason, it is not recommended that they be used as a treatment for this condition.[1]

Arch supports[edit]

An arch support is a piece of material designed to provide support for the arch of the foot. An arch support may be placed on top of the shoe's insole, or may be part of the insole. Most arch supports are full inserts which replaces the original insole and supports the arch a lot better.

Orthotics and arch supports are regularly recommended by physiotherapists, podiatrists and orthotists for the relief of foot pain, heel pain, shin pain, knee pain and back pain. Often, a biomechanical mal-alignment or lack of stability from the foot region can cause abnormal loads on the tissues of the foot and heel, shin, knee or back pain can develop as a result.

Correcting these problems using orthotics and arch supports is an important part of the injury treatment. Full length orthotics and arch supports are superb for sports shoes, and running shoes, where they can be inserted as an insole replacement. Arch cushion orthotic insoles are superb for sports use because they provide a degree of cushioning and shock absorption in addition to improving the foot biomechanics.

It is placed inside a shoe so that its molded form fits the arch of the foot. Arch supports can be made from different materials. They can be made from plastic, aiming to be flexible enough to provide comfort and rigid enough to provide support. But most arch support inserts are made from a special material, emulsified silicon rubber. The material can be custom made to fit individual feet using a medical foot casting system. Alternatively, generic shapes and sizes can be purchased based on foot size and arch height.

Arch supports are most commonly found in shoes, but sandals such as Birkenstock are also produced with a degree of built-in arch support. Most original insoles have no arch support or almost no arch support because each foot arch is different and producing a shoe with too much arch support will be uncomfortable for most customers.

It is better to buy a good pair of shoes and buy separately a pair of quality insoles. A good quality shoe shop can advise the customer on which pre-made insole should be bought or whether a custom made insole is a better solution.

Diabetic shoes[edit]

Main article: Diabetic shoes

Diabetic shoes, sometimes referred to as extra depth, therapeutic shoes or Sugar Shoes, are specially designed shoes, or shoe inserts, intended to reduce the risk of skin breakdown in diabetics with co-existing foot disease.

Fitting patients[edit]

Traditionally, orthopedic inserts were created from plaster casts made from the patient's foot. These casts were made by wrapping dipped plaster or fiberglass strips around the foot to capture the form, then letting it dry and harden. Once the cast was hardened, the doctor would carefully remove it from the patient's foot and ship it, along with a prescription, to an orthotics lab which would use the negative of the cast to create an orthopedic insert.

Recently, companies such as Tom-Cat Solutions and Delcam have developed digital foot scanners that use specialized software to scan a patient's foot and create a "virtual" cast. These scans are made by having the patient place their foot onto a specialized flat image scanner that uses light and software to capture and create a 3D model. This 3D model is then electronically submitted (along with a prescription) to an orthotics lab, where it is used to program a CNC machine that will ultimately produce the orthopedic insert.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (February 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons), retrieved 19 May 2013 , which cites
    • Jevsevar, DS; Brown, GA; Jones, DL; Matzkin, EG; Manner, PA; Mooar, P; Schousboe, JT; Stovitz, S; Sanders, JO; Bozic, KJ; Goldberg, MJ; Martin WR, 3rd; Cummins, DS; Donnelly, P; Woznica, A; Gross, L; American Academy of Orthopaedic, Surgeons (Oct 16, 2013). "The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons evidence-based guideline on: treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, 2nd edition.". The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume 95 (20): 1885–6. PMID 24288804. 
    • Richmond, J; Hunter, D; Irrgang, J; Jones, MH; Levy, B; Marx, R; Snyder-Mackler, L; Watters WC, 3rd; Haralson RH, 3rd; Turkelson, CM; Wies, JL; Boyer, KM; Anderson, S; St Andre, J; Sluka, P; McGowan, R; American Academy of Orthopaedic, Surgeons (Sep 2009). "Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee (nonarthroplasty).". The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 17 (9): 591–600. PMID 19726743. 

"Shoe inserts - causes and treatment". heelpads.net. [unreliable source?]

Further reading[edit]

  • Landorf, K.B.; Keenan, A.M. (2000). "Efficacy of foot orthoses. What does the literature tell us?". Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 90 (3): 149–58. doi:10.7547/87507315-90-3-149. PMID 10740997. 
  • Razeghi, Mohsen; Batt, Mark Edward (2000). "Biomechanical analysis of the effect of orthotic shoe inserts". Sports Medicine 29 (6): 425–38. doi:10.2165/00007256-200029060-00005. PMID 10870868. 
  • Landorf, K.B.; Keenan, A.M. (2000). "Efficacy of foot orthoses. What does the literature tell us?". Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 90 (3): 149–58. doi:10.7547/87507315-90-3-149. PMID 10740997. 
  • Razeghi, Mohsen; Batt, Mark Edward (2000). "Biomechanical analysis of the effect of orthotic shoe inserts". Sports Medicine 29 (6): 425–38. doi:10.2165/00007256-200029060-00005. PMID 10870868. 
  • Christovão, TC; Neto, HP; Grecco, LA; Ferreira, LA; Franco de Moura, RC; Eliege de Souza, M; Franco de Oliveira, LV; Oliveira, CS (Oct 2013). "Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.". Journal of physical therapy science 25 (10): 1353–6. PMID 24259792. 
  • Penny, P; Geere, J; Smith, TO (Oct 2013). "A systematic review investigating the efficacy of laterally wedged insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis.". Rheumatology international 33 (10): 2529–38. PMID 23612781.