Skeleton Canyon, called Canon Bonita by the Mexicans, is located 30 miles (50 km) northeast of the town of Douglas, Arizona, in the Peloncillo Mountains, which straddle the modern Arizona and New Mexico state line, in the New Mexico Bootheel region.
This canyon connects the Animas Valley of New Mexico with the San Simon Valley of Arizona, and was once a main route between the United States and Mexico for both legal and illegal traffic. While originally known as Guadalupe Canyon, the area became called Skeleton Canyon, as a result of the bones of cows and humans left behind from cattle drives from Mexico.
The canyon was the site of several battles during the American Old West. In 1879, a group of outlaw Cowboys attacked a group of Mexican Rurales and stole their cattle. In July 1881, Curly Bill Brocius attacked and killed about a dozen Mexican smugglers carrying silver and heading to the United States. In retribution, the Mexican government attacked and killed Newman Haynes Clanton and others as they were driving cattle through Guadalupe Canyon. In 1883, Apache Indians from Chihuahua's band surprised eight troopers of Troop D, Fourth Cavalry, killed three men, burned the wagons and supplies, and drove off forty horses and mules.
Geronimo's final surrender to General Miles on September 4, 1886, occurred at the western edge of this canyon. As the surrender site is now on private property, commemorative monument has been erected to the northwest along SR 80, where it intersects with Skeleton Canyon Road in Arizona, at geographic coordinates . The mouth of the canyon lies about 9.5 mi (15.3 km) to the southeast just west of the Arizona – New Mexico line.
- Geronimo's War and the role of two Apache scouts
- Indian Wars West of the Mississippi
- Skeleton Canyon Shootout
- Skeleton Canyon Massacre
- Skeleton Canyon treasure
- Guadalupe Canyon Massacre
- Evolution, Use, and Effectiveness of the Apache Indian Scouts
- Jul 31, 1937, Apache scout Martine dies
- Photos of Canyon and monument
- Scouts Guide Lieutenant Gatewood to Geronimo's and Naiche's camp
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