Railway system of the Soviet Union

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Soviet Railways
P36.jpg
Steam locomotives, such as the P36, were the quintessential symbol of the Soviet Railways.
Reporting mark SZhD, SZD
Locale Soviet Union
Dates of operation 1922–1991
Predecessor RIZhD, JGR
Successor RŽD, UZ, BCh, ADDY, SR, HYU, LG, CFM, EVR, LZD, KTZ, OTY, TZD, KTJ
Track gauge 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in)
Electrification 3 kV DC, 25 kV AC, 50 Hz
Length 147,400 km (91,600 mi)
Headquarters Moscow

The Soviet Railways (Russian: Cоветские железные дороги (CЖД)) was the state owned national railway system of the Soviet Union, headquartered in Moscow. The railway started operations in December 1922, shortly after the formation of the USSR. It operated until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991.[1] The Soviet Railways were the largest unified railway in the world and the backbone of the USSR's economy. SZD greatly upgraded and expanded the Russian Imperial Railways to meet the demands of the Union. The railway was directly under the control of the Ministry of Railways in the Soviet Union.

After the dissolution of the USSR, the Soviet Railways were split into 14 different national railways belonging to the respective countries. However after the end of the SZD, rail transport in the former USSR states greatly declined and have not recovered to their former efficiency to this day.[2] The Russian Railways are widely considered as the primary successor[clarification needed] of the SZhD. Other successors inherit the Soviet infrastructure in Central Asia.

Successor Railways[edit]

Railway Country Year Started Length
Ministry of the Means of Communication
Russian Railways (RZhD)
Russia Russia
1992
2004
85,500 km
Ukrainian Railways (UZ)
Ukraine Ukraine
1992
22,300 km
Kazakhstan Railways (KTZ)
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
1992
15,000 km
Belarusian Railway (BCh)
Belarus Belarus
1992
5,491 km
Uzbek Railways (OTY)
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan
1992
4,230 km
Turkmen Railways (TTY)
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
1992
3,181 km
Azerbaijan Railways (ADY)
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
1991
2,932 km
Latvian Railways (LZD)
Latvia Latvia
1992
2,269 km
Lithuanian Railways (LG)
Lithuania Lithuania
1991
1,766 km
Georgian Railways (SR)
Georgia (country) Georgia
1992
1,513 km
Moldovian Railways (CFM)
Moldova Moldova
1992
1,156 km
Armenian Railways (HYU)
Armenia Armenia
1992
845 km
Eesti Raudtee (EVR)
Estonia Estonia
1992
816 km
Tajik Railways (TZD)
Tajikistan Tajikistan
1992
616 km
Kyrgyz Railways (KTJ)
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
1992
417 km

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russian Railways - History of Russian Railways (1914-1991)
  2. ^ Russian Railways - History of Russian Railways (1991-2003)