Stomoxys calcitrans is commonly called the stable fly, barn fly, biting house fly, dog fly, or power mower fly. Unlike most members of the family Muscidae, Stomoxys calcitrans and others of its genus suck blood from mammals. Now found worldwide, the species is considered to be of Eurasian origin.
The stable fly resembles the common housefly (Musca domestica), though smaller, and on closer examination has a slightly wider abdomen and is spotted. Adults are generally about 6-8mm in length and a lighter color than the housefly. Unlike the housefly, where the mouth part is adapted for sponging, the stable fly mouth parts have biting structures.
As its name suggests, the stable fly is abundant in and around where cattle are kept. Its maggots are often seen in the rotting manure near cattle and poultry.
The earliest and one of the most comprehensive accounts of stable fly biology was presented by F. Bishop in 1913. The adults of both sexes feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals during the daytime. For egg production, the female requires its abdomen to be engorged with blood. The female takes approximately 2–5 minutes to engorge, after which it becomes sluggish for a while. The eggs are laid among putrefying organic materials such as hay, manure, and wood. Males usually die after mating and the females after laying eggs. The life cycle is completed in approximately two weeks at temperatures around 27 °C. The duration is highly dependent on temperature and nutrient quality available for the larvae. Bishop (1913) noted that the larvae can endure for more than 30 days in less nutritious environs.
Cattle heavily infested with stable flies have been noted to become anemic and milking cows have been observed to show lower milk production. The stable fly bites humans at rest in the outdoors; generally the bite is almost painless. In many parts of the world, the species is a carrier of typanosomid parasites. Some of the reported parasites and diseases of which the stable fly might be a vector of include Trypanosoma evansi (the agent of Surra), Trypanosoma brucei, brucellosis, Equine infectious anemia, African horse sickness (AHS), and fowlpox. 
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- University of Michigan
- Managing Stable Fly Production at Pasture Feeding Sites
- Stable flies: how to control them hosted by the UNT Government Documents Department
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