|Stephen Henry Hobhouse|
5 August 1881|
Pitcombe, Somerset, England
|Died||2 April 1961(aged 79)|
|Alma mater||University of Oxford|
Stephen Henry Hobhouse (5 August 1881 – 2 April 1961) was a prominent English peace activist, prison reformer, and religious writer.
Stephen Henry Hobhouse was born in Pitcombe, Somerset, England. He was the eldest son of Henry Hobhouse (1854–1937), a wealthy landowner and Liberal MP from 1885 to 1906, and Margaret Heyworth Potter. Both sides of his family included a number of reformers and progressive politicians:
- As an MP, his father was behind the Education Act of 1902.
- His paternal cousin Emily Hobhouse (1860–1926) was known for bringing attention to British concentration camps in South Africa during the Second Boer War. Her views greatly influenced Stephen.
- His paternal cousin Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (1864–1929) was a sociologist and one of the founders of social liberalism.
- His brother Sir Arthur Lawrence Hobhouse (1886–1965) was the architect of the system of National parks of England and Wales.
- His maternal aunt Catherine Courtney, Baroness Courtney of Penwith (1847-1929), was a social worker and internationalist.
- His maternal aunt Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield (1858–1943), was a sociologist, economist, and social reformer who played key roles in founding both the London School of Economics and Political Science and the Fabian Society.
- His maternal great-grandfather Richard Potter (1778–1842) was a radical Liberal Party MP.
Education and formative years
The Second Boer War broke out when he was 18. He originally supported the war but his views were soon challenged by his cousin Emily. "Thus, no doubt, it was that my mind was prepared for the awakening". What he regarded as an awakening came from a 1902 reading of a pamphlet by Leo Tolstoy. This tract had a profound influence on him and he became an ardent lifelong pacifist.
He worked as a civil servant for seven years in the Board of Education. During the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, he resigned his post to go to Constantinople as a volunteer with a Quaker relief mission that helped refugees.
In April 1915, Hobhouse married Rosa Waugh (1881–1961). He met her at a dinner party for Christian activists. She was also an activist, and spent three months in jail for distributing pacifist pamphlets. Rosa was also a prolific author on her own. Together they wrote a biography of Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy. Both Hobhouses were firm believers in homeopathy, and Steven even translated articles for the Homeopathic Journal.
As eldest son of a wealthy family, Stephen stood to inherit a large fortune, but, influenced by Tolstoy here too, he renounced his inheritance. He and his wife adopted a lifestyle of poverty, living in Hoxton, then a slum district in East London. At the same time they joined the Quaker Society of Friends and became active in Quaker service.
Pacifism and prison
Hobhouse was conscripted in 1916. He was granted an exemption at a tribunal in August 1916, conditional upon him joining the Friends Ambulance Unit, but, as an absolutist or unconditionalist conscientious objector, refused to accept the decision or to appeal against it. He ignored a notice to report to a barracks, was arrested by the civil police, brought before a magistrates' court, and handed over to the military. He refused to put on military uniform, was court-martialled and sentenced to imprisonment with hard labour.
Hobhouse was placed in solitary confinement because he refused to obey the "Rule of Silence" forbidding prisoners to speak to one another. He wrote to his wife: "The spirit of love requires that I should speak to my fellow-prisoners, the spirit of truth that I should speak to them openly" By mid 1917 his health, after 112 days in jail, followed by a second jail sentence, was declining rapidly. (His health had always been frail: he had had nervous breakdowns and scarlet fever.) His wife was very angry about the treatment he got in prison. Some said that he never recovered his health entirely. In 1917 Hobhouse wrote:
Nearly every feature of prison life seems deliberately arranged to destroy a man's sense of his own personality, his power of choice and initiative, his possessive instincts, his concept of himself as a being designed to love and serve his fellow-man. His very name is blotted out and he becomes a number; A.3.21 and D.2.65 were two of my designations. He and his fellows are elaborately counted, when-ever moved from one location to another, in the characteristic machine-like way. He is continually, of course, under lock and key, ignored except as an object for spying.
His mother, Margaret, was a supporter of the war — a war in which three sons served and the youngest Paul Edward was killed in March 1918. But she was determined to save Stephen's life and to draw attention to the predicament of the roughly 1350 war resisters then in prison. She maintained that "absolutists" like Stephen should either receive a King's Pardon or be released into civilian life. She produced a pamphlet, I Appeal unto Caesar: the case of the conscientious objectors, with an introduction by the eminent classicist and public figure Gilbert Murray, publicising the plight of the conscientious objectors. The pamphlet sold over 18,000 copies. Recent research by Jo Vellacott has revealed that the appeal's author was actually Bertrand Russell. Margaret conducted an active campaign, aided discreetly by the influential Alfred Milner, who was a family friend. His case was first raised in Parliament on 9 July 1917. The campaign eventually prevailed, and in December 1917 Stephen Hobhouse, along with some 300 other COs, was released from prison on grounds of ill health.
In prison Hobhouse met Fenner Brockway, a "fiery socialist" and fellow anti-war activist. After the war, they wrote English Prisons Today, sponsored by the Prison System Enquiry Committee. This book, which appeared in 1922, was a critique of the whole English prison system and initiated a wave of prison reform which has continued to this day.
- 1918 The silence system in British prisons. London: Hoxton. OCLC 83702276.
- 1919 Joseph Sturge, his life and work. London. OCLC 187101825.
- 1919 An English prison from within. London: G. Allen & Unwin. OCLC 60734929.
- 1922 English prisons to-day: being the report of the Prison system enquiry committee. London: Longmans, Green and co. OCLC 4619955.
- 1927 William Law and eighteenth century Quakerism. London. OCLC 466191746.
- 1934 Margaret Hobhouse and her family. Rochester [Eng.]: Stanhope Press. OCLC 7161818.
- 1937 Isaac Newton and Jacob Boehme. Belgrade. OCLC 36931558.
- 1948 Selected Mystical Writing of William Law. New York: Harper. OCLC 8408065.
- 1944? Christ and our enemies. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. OCLC 8970134.
- 1946 A Christian's outline of belief. London: Fellowship of Reconciliation. OCLC 43490560.
- 1951 Forty years and an epilogue an autobiography (1881–1951). London: J. Clarke. OCLC 612886400.
- 1952 The autobiography of Stephen Hobhouse, reformer, pacifist, Christian. Boston: Beacon Press. OCLC 3463052.
- 1954 A discourse on the life to come. London: Independent Press. OCLC 4392028.
- The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe:Stephen Hobhouse
- Zedner, p. 248
- Brock, p. 14
- Hochschild, pp. 220–222
- Hochschild, p. 277
- I appeal unto Cæsar
- Hochschild, p. 276
- Sue Young Histories: Rosa and Stephen Hobhouse and Homeopathy
- Hobhouse, Rosa
- Homeopathic Journal: Volume 3, Issue 5, Mar 2010 (Historical Papers)
- The Soul As It Is and How to Deal With It, by Professor Gilbert Murray, Reprinted from the Hibbert Journal, Published in January 1918 by the Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, Chennai India
- Brock, p. 18
- Hochschild, p. 270
- Moorehead, pp. 271–2
- CWGC record for Paul Edward Hobhouse
- Hochschild, p. 322
- Hochschild, pp. 269–272
- Hochschild, pp. 270–272
- Hochschild, p. 329
- The Bat Segundo Show: Adam Hochschild
- digitalcommons: Russell as ghost-writer, a new discovery
- Hochschild, p. 303
- St. Stephen's House, Friends' Emergency Work in England, 1914 to 1920, Compiled by Anna Braithwaite Thomas
- English prisons to-day; being the report of the Prison System Enquiry Committee (1922)
- The report of the Commission on English Prisons Today: Final Report, 2009, p. 18, 62
- Stephen_Hobhouse at Open Library
- Stephen_Hobhouse at WorldCat
- Brock, Peter, These strange criminals : an anthology of prison memoirs by conscientious objectors to military service from the Great War to the Cold War, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004, ISBN 0802087078
- Hobhouse, Rosa Waugh, Life of Christian Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, New Delhi: B. Jain, 2001, ISBN 8170216850
- Hochschild, Adam, To end all wars : a story of loyalty and rebellion, 1914-1918, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011, ISBN 0618758283
- Moorehead, Caroline, Bertrand Russell: a life, New York: Viking, 1993, ISBN 067085008X
- Rae, John, Conscience and Politics - The British Government and the Conscientious Objector to Military Service 1916-1919, Oxford University Press, 1970, ISBN 0192151762
- Vellacott, Jo, Bertrand Russell and the pacifists in the First World War, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981, ISBN 031207705X
- Wills, David W, Stephen Henry Hobhouse: a twentieth-century Quaker saint, London, Friends Home Service Committee, 1972
- Zedner, Lucia, The criminological foundations of penal policy: essays in honour of Roger Hood, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0199265097
- Full text of English prisons to-day; being the report of the Prison System Enquiry Committee, digitized by the Internet Archive
- Full text of I appeal unto Cæsar: the case of the conscientious objector, (fourth edition) digitized by the Internet Archive