Strongman (politics)

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A strongman is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime. The term is often used interchangeably with "dictator", but differs from a "warlord".

A strongman is not necessarily always a formal head of state or head of government; sometimes journalists use the term to describe a military or political figure who exercises far more influence over the government than a constitution allows. General Manuel Noriega, for example, was often dubbed the "Strongman of Panama" for the enormous amount of political power he exercised over Panama, despite the fact that he was not the formal president of the state.

Similarly, not every discussion of "strong leadership"[1] (or every promise to provide such[2]) envisages rule by a strongman.

Political figures referred to as "strongmen"[edit]

Country Leader
 Afghanistan Hafizullah Amin[3]
 Angola José Eduardo dos Santos[4]
 Argentina Juan Perón[5]
 Argentina Leopoldo Galtieri[6]
 Armenia Garegin Nzhdeh[7]
 Armenia Vazgen Sargsyan[8]
 Burundi Pierre Buyoya[9]
 Burma Ne Win[10]
 Burma Than Shwe[11]
 Cambodia Hun Sen[12]
 Cameroon Paul Biya[13]
 Chechnya Ramzan Kadyrov[14]
 Chile Augusto Pinochet[15]
 China Mao Zedong[16]
 China Deng Xiaoping[16]
 Republic of the Congo Denis Sassou-Nguesso[17][18]
 Croatia Franjo Tudjman[19]
 Cuba Fidel Castro[20]
 Cuba Fulgencio Batista[21]
 Dominican Republic Rafael Trujillo[22]
 Ecuador Rafael Correa[23]
 Egypt Hosni Mubarak[24]
 Eritrea Isaias Afewerki[25]
 Ethiopia Meles Zenawi[26]
 Equatorial Guinea Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[27]
 France Napoleon[28]
 Gambia Yahya Jammeh[29]
 Germany Adolf Hitler[30]
 East Germany Erich Honecker[31]
 Greece Georgios Papadopoulos[32]
 Honduras Tiburcio Carías Andino
 Indonesia Suharto
 Iraq Saddam Hussein[33]
 Italy Benito Mussolini[34]
 Kenya Daniel Arap Moi[35]
 Libya Muammar Gaddafi[36]
 Malaysia Mahathir bin Mohamad[37][38]
 Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza García [39]
 North Korea Kim Jong-il[40]
 Pakistan Pervez Musharraf[41][42]
 Panama Manuel Noriega[43]
 Philippines Ferdinand Marcos[44]
 Poland Wojciech Jaruzelski
 Romania Nicolae Ceausescu [45]
 Russia Vladimir Putin[46][47]
 Rwanda Paul Kagame[48]
 Serbia Slobodan Milošević[49][50]
 Singapore Lee Kuan Yew[51]
 Syria Salah Jadid[52]
 Syria Hafez al-Assad[53]
 Syria Bashar al-Assad[54]
 South Korea Park Chung-hee[55][56]
 South Korea Syngman Rhee[57]
 Spain Francisco Franco[58]
 Sudan Omar al-Bashir[59]
 Suriname Dési Bouterse[60]
 Taiwan Chiang Kai-shek[61]
 Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk[62][63]
 Turkey İsmet İnönü[64]
 Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[65][66][67][68][69][70]
 Uganda Idi Amin Dada[71][72]
 Uganda Milton Obote[73]
 Uganda Yoweri Museveni[74]
 USSR Joseph Stalin[75]
 Venezuela Hugo Chávez[76][77][78]
 Venezuela Juan Vincente Gomez
 Yugoslavia Josip Tito[79]
 Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko[80]
 Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe[81]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ For example: Sinclair, Barbara (1992). "The Emergence of Strong Leadership in the 1980s House of Representatives". The Journal of Politics 54 (03): 657-684. doi:10.2307/2132306. Retrieved 2013-10-27. An explanation for the emergence of strong leadership is offered and tested. I argue that, during the period under study, the costs and benefits to majority party members of strong leadership changed significantly. 
  2. ^ See for example: Rao, Mumtaz Hamid, ed. (May 2010). "David Cameron takes the reins in UK; Vows strong leadership". Pakistan Times (Islamabad). Pakistan Times UK Bureau. ISSN 1729-7915. Retrieved 2013-10-27. Prime Minister David Cameron has said the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition will be united to give Britain a strong and stable leadership for the long term.[...] 'And it will be an administration united behind one key purpose and that is to give our country the strong and stable and determined leadership that we need for the long term.' [...] New Prime Minister David Cameron unveiled more details of his historic coalition on Wednesday, vowing "strong" government after ending 13 years of Labour rule. [...] New Foreign Secretary William Hague insisted the coalition agreement [...] would stand the test of time. [...] 'It will be a strong government,' said Hague. 
  3. ^ Sinno, Abdulkader H. (2008). Organizations at War in Afghanistan and Beyond. Cornell University Press. pp. 108. ISBN 0-8014-4618-X. 
  4. ^ "Dos Santos: Angola's shy strongman". Africa Review. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  5. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/nov/10/emilio-massera-obituary.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ Template:Http://www.rte.ie/news/2003/0112/33971-argentina/
  7. ^ "ARMENIA AND KARABAGH". Minority Rights Group. 1991. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  8. ^ Corley, Felix (29 October 1999). "Vazgen Sarkissian". The Independent. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  9. ^ McKinley Jr, James C. (19 September 1996). "Despite Strongman's Vow, Burundi Strife Grows". New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "General Ne Win". The Guardian (Obituary). December 6, 2002. 
  11. ^ Cotterell, Arthur (2014). A History of South East Asia. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 304. ISBN 978-981-4634-70-0. 
  12. ^ "ASIA-PACIFIC | Cambodia strongman gives election pledge". BBC News. 29 April 1998. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  13. ^ "Cameroon's longtime strongman seeks another term". Huffington Post. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Parfitt, Tom (21 May 2013). "Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov welcomes Gerard Depardieu and Elizabeth Hurley to Grozny". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  15. ^ "People's Daily Online – Pinochet, long-time strongman in Chile, dies at 91". People's Daily. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Xiang, Lanxin (20 April 2012). "Bo Xilai probe shows up China's outdated system of government". South China Morning Post
  17. ^ "As Zimbabwe Goes...". The Nation. 8 April 2002. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  18. ^ "Congo Strongman Set for Poll Win". 13 July 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  19. ^ Jelacic, Nerma (14 November 1999). "Croat Strongman Nears Death". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2013. 
  20. ^ "Castro: Clinton-Obama ticket 'invincible'". CNN. 28 August 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  21. ^ "U.S. GETS A LOOK AT FULGENCIO BATISTA, STRONG MAN OF CUBA". LIFE Magazine 5 (21). Time Inc. 21 Nov 1938. p. 20. ISSN 0024-3019. 
  22. ^ "DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Strongman's Whimsy". TIME Magazine. January 19, 1953. 
  23. ^ "Tirano Correa". ElColombiano.com. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  24. ^ Hardy, Roger (11 February 2011). "Middle East after Hosni Mubarak: impact of a revolution". BBC. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  25. ^ wadanka - The bad boy of the Horn of Africa: How Eritrea’s strongman uses Kenya as a terror finance hub
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  27. ^ "Equatorial Guinea's strongman lambasts Libya intervention, then attends NTC celebration". Foreign Policy. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  28. ^ Claus Telp (2005). The Evolution Of Operational Art, 1740-1813: From Frederick The Great To Napoleon. Frank Cass. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7146-5722-6. 
  29. ^ "Gambia’s President Yahya Jammeh orders end of English as official language". South China Morning Post. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  30. ^ Smaldone, William (2010). Confronting Hitler: German Social Democrats in Defense of the Weimar Republic, 1929-1933. Lexington Books. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7391-3211-1. 
  31. ^ Cite error: The named reference http:.2F.2Fwww.nytimes.com.2F1993.2F09.2F23.2Fworld.2Fsantiago-journal-in-pinochet-s-old-realm-twilight-of-honecker.html was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  32. ^ Steen, Gonda A.H. Van (2000). Venom in Verse: Aristophanes in Modern Greece. Princeton University Press. p. 181. ISBN 1-4008-2375-7. 
  33. ^ Anderson, Dale (2004). Saddam Hussein. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8225-5005-1. 
  34. ^ Fleischman, Stephen (2007). Short Jabs to the Head: Snapshots of History 2005-2007. iUniverse. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-595-46445-6. 
  35. ^ Phombeah, Gray (5 August 2002). "Moi's legacy to Kenya". BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  36. ^ "The Wall Street Journal Online – Featured Article". Opinionjournal.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  37. ^ TIMEasia Magazine: Malaysia – The Last of the Strongmen[dead link]
  38. ^ "Malaysia crisis | Profile: Malaysia's strongman Mahathir". BBC News. 10 November 1999. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  39. ^ http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/nicaragua/lillian.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ "Is North Korean dictator Kim Jong Il ready to trade away his growing nuclear arsenal, or is he just playing for time? – US News and World Report". Usnews.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  41. ^ CBC.ca[dead link]
  42. ^ William Mervin Gumede (2007). Thabo Mbeki and the Battle for the Soul of the ANC. Zebra. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-77007-099-8. 
  43. ^ "Manuel Noriega Biography". Notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  44. ^ Ferdinand Marcos
  45. ^ Template:Http://www.france24.com/en/20091225-twenty-years-after-fall-ghost-ceausescus-govt-still-haunts-romanians/
  46. ^ Hiatt, Fred (24 December 2007). "Myth of the Strongman". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  47. ^ Angus Roxburgh (2012). The Strongman: Vladimir Putin and the Struggle for Russia. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-016-2. 
  48. ^ "World | Africa | Profile: Rwanda's strongman". BBC News. 25 January 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  49. ^ "Milosevic: Serbia's fallen strongman". BBC News. March 30, 2001. 
  50. ^ "Borislav Milosevic, brother of ex-Serbian strongman Slobodan Milosevic, dies at 79". Fox News. Associated Press. January 29, 2013. 
  51. ^ [2][dead link]
  52. ^ Moubayed, Sami M. (2006). Steel and Silk. Cune Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-885942-41-8. 
  53. ^ Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-85109-842-2. 
  54. ^ Totten, Michael J. (2013). The Road to Fatima Gate: The Beirut Spring, the Rise of Hezbollah, and the Iranian War Against Israel. Encounter Books. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-59403-655-2. 
  55. ^ Sang-Hun, Choe (20 August 2012). "Ex-Dictator’s Daughter Nominated for South Korean Presidency". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  56. ^ "Chung Il Kwon; Ex-South Korea Leader". Los Angeles Times. 20 January 1994. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  57. ^ Monday, 30 June 1952 (30 June 1952). "Strongman Syngman". TIME. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  58. ^ Joy Hakim (2002). War, Peace, and All That Jazz. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19-515335-4. 
  59. ^ http://www.freedomhouse.org/article/freedom-house-condemns-sudanese-government%E2%80%99s-killing-12-during-protests
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  61. ^ "Taiwan tosses Chiang Kai-shek statues to shed authoritarian past". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  62. ^ http://opinion.inquirer.net/10551/quezon-and-ataturk-a-study-of-strongman-rule
  63. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1499&dat=19650331&id=itojAAAAIBAJ&sjid=nCcEAAAAIBAJ&pg=5218,6620979
  64. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1870&dat=19731224&id=PegeAAAAIBAJ&sjid=eswEAAAAIBAJ&pg=3471,3562504
  65. ^ Board, Editorial (3 June 2013). "Prime Minister Erdogan's strongman tactics in Turkey". Washington Post. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  66. ^ "Recep Tayyip Erdogan: Turkish strongman under corruption cloud". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  67. ^ "Robert Fisk: Has Recep Tayyip Erdogan gone from model Middle East 'strongman' to tin-pot dictator?". Ammon News. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  68. ^ http://www.timesofisrael.com/erdogan-expected-to-emerge-as-strongman-president-in-turkey-vote/
  69. ^ http://www.macleans.ca/authors/michael-petrou/the-making-of-turkeys-strongman/
  70. ^ http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20140811000475
  71. ^ "Idi Amin's son writes to Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni". Africa Review. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  72. ^ "Idi Amin seeks kidney donor". BBC News. 14 August 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  73. ^ "Milton Obote Dies at 80; Strongman in Uganda, Twice Overthrown". New York Times. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  74. ^ "Uganda Strongman a Favorite of World Lenders". New York Times. 29 January 1995. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  75. ^ Monday, 2 April 1956 (2 April 1956). "The Quick & the Dead". TIME. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  76. ^ Delacour, Justin. "The Op-Ed Assassination of Hugo Chávez". Fair.org. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  77. ^ "Hugo Chavez to make himself president for life". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  78. ^ The Castro in Caracas: Venezuelan strongman Hugo Chavez, in Fidel's image | National Review | Find Articles at BNET.com[dead link]
  79. ^ Leonard, Thomas M. (2013). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Taylor & Francis. p. 1418. ISBN 978-1-135-20515-7. 
  80. ^ Daniszewski, John; Simmons, Ann M. (8 September 1997). "Ex-Dictator Mobutu Dies In Exile -- Brutal Strongman Became Rich As Zaire Descended Into Poverty". Seattle Times. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  81. ^ Graham K. Brown; Arnim Langer (2013). Elgar Handbook of Civil War and Fragile States. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 387. ISBN 978-1-84844-842-1.