Take Back the Night
The first "Take Back the Night" march was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in October 1975, after the murder of a microbiologist, Susan Alexander Speeth, who was stabbed to death while walking home alone.  
A "Reclaim the Night" march was held in Belgium in March 1976 by the women attending the International Tribunal on Crimes against Women. They marched together holding candles to protest violence against women. Other marches were held in Rome in 1976 as a reaction to recently released rape statistics, in West Germany in 1977 demanding "the right to move freely in their communities at day and night without harassment and sexual assault," and in 11 towns in England later in 1977 in response to the "Ripper Murders" in Leeds.
Events typically consist of a rally followed by a march and often a speak-out or candlelight vigil on violence against women. The marches are often deliberately women-only in order to symbolize women's individual walk through darkness and to demonstrate that women united can resist fear and violence. (Other marches include men; the organization differs as each event is organized locally.) The women-only policies have caused controversy on some campuses; activists argued that male allies and sexual assault survivors should be allowed to march in support of women. Some activists believe strongly that all Take Back the Night Events should be open and inclusive of all genders and not segregated.
Wesleyan University in Connecticut allows men to participate in speaking on their own experiences with sexual assault. The march at Wesleyan University includes performances by a cappella groups. Until 2012, when an all-male group was also invited to perform, these performances were done by two of the university's all women groups. More notably, Bowdoin College in Maine organizes a similar candlelight vigil and walk that encourages students of all genders to show solidarity for survivors on campus and in this nation.
While the march began as a way to protest the violence that women experienced while walking in public at night, the purpose of these marches was to speak out against this violence and raise community awareness as a preventive measure against future violence. The movement has since grown to encompass all forms of violence against all persons, though violence against women is still the movement's main focus. The word night was originally meant to be taken literally to express the fear that many women feel during the night but has since changed to symbolize a fear of violence in general. This helps the movement incorporate other feminist concerns such as domestic violence and sexual abuse within the home. The march has grown from a widely publicized event taking place in major cities to an event happening internationally from large metropolitan areas to small college campuses, all advocating for the right of everyone to feel safe from violence.
Women are often told to be extra careful and take precautions when going out at night. In some parts of the world, even today, women are not allowed out at night. So when women struggle for freedom, we must start at the beginning by fighting for freedom of movement, which we have not had and do not now have. We must recognize that freedom of movement is a precondition for anything else. It comes before freedom of speech in importance because without it freedom of speech cannot in fact exist.
On 7 November 2009 the first Take the Back the Night annual conference took place at Columbia University.
While some Take Back the Night marches later allowed men to participate, others still refuse to allow men (even male victims of sexual assault) under the claim of creating a "safe space" for women. Some critics argue this ignores the struggles of male victims and fails to provide them male role models, as well as implying the need to "take back the night" from all men, not just the minority who are perpetrators of sexual violence.
- "Take Back the Night". UMBC. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "The International Tribunal on Crimes Against Women". everything2.com. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "March remembers women killed". East Anglian Daily Times. 2006-12-30. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- Resmovits, Joy (2008-04-17). "For First Time, Men Will Join Full Take Back the Night March". Columbia Daily Spectator. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "Avon Foundation Newsroom". Avoncompany.com. 2009-07-09. Archived from the original on 2010-01-09. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- Urback, Robyn (2013-05-27). "Theo Fleury’s ‘Victor Walk’ brings the silent suffering of male abuse victims into the open". National Post. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- Urback, Robyn (2011-09-23). "Urban Scrawl: Toronto march ignores male sex abuse victims". National Post. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- Brownmiller, Susan (1999). In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution (ISBN 0-385-31486-8).
- Dworkin, Andrea (1993). "Letters From a War Zone" (ISBN 1-556-52185-5).
- "Official Online Headquarters" for Take Back the Night- Resources to assist with running TBTN events, calendar of some TBTN events.
- WMST-L: Take Back the Night, 1 of 2 (1995) and 2 of 2 (1997, 2001).
- Take Back the Night - Ipswich, United Kingdom - (report on response to the 2006 Ipswich murder investigation)
- Take Back the Night 2006 at UC Santa Cruz
- Ireland speaks at Take Back the Night rally[dead link] (discusses men getting involved in a rally at the University of Virginia)
- The Rape Relief Files: Take Back The Night - Vancouver Herstory
- Reclaim the Night - Brighton, UK