Tar (tobacco residue)

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For other uses, see tar (disambiguation).

Tar is the common name for the resinous, partially combusted particulate matter produced by the burning of tobacco and other plant material in the act of smoking. Tar is toxic and damages the smoker's lungs over time through various biochemical and mechanical processes.[1] Tar also damages the mouth by rotting and blackening teeth, damaging gums, and desensitizing taste buds. Tar includes the majority of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents in tobacco smoke (IARC, 1986). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), for example, are genotoxic via epoxidation.[2]

There is a common misconception that the tar in cigarettes is equivalent to the tar used on roads.[citation needed] As a result of this, cigarette companies in the United States, when prompted to give tar/nicotine ratings for cigarettes, usually use "tar", in quotation marks, to indicate that it is not the road surface component. Tar is occasionally referred to as an acronym for total aerosol residue,[3] a backronym coined in the mid-1960s.[4]

Tar, when in the lungs, coats the cilia causing them to stop working and eventually die, causing such conditions as lung cancer as the toxic particles in tobacco smoke are no longer trapped by the cilia but enter the alveoli directly. Thus, the alveoli cannot come through with the process that is called ‘gas exchange’ which is the cause of rough breathing.

The tar from cigarette smoke is similar to that of marijuana smoke.[5]

EFFECTS

Lung Cancer

[6] One of the best known diseases caused by smoking is Lung Cancer. A few carcinogens (any substance that has an involvement in the making of cancer cells) that are commonly found in tar include benzene, acrylamide and acrylonitrile. Smoking exposes those delicate cells inside the lungs directly to these compounds. This causes mutations in the DNA of the cells and then this therefore leads to cancer. According to the World Health Organization's report on "Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking," 90 percent of all cases of lung cancer are attributable to smoking.

THIRD HAND SMOKING AND ITS EFFECTS

Thirdhand smoke is residual nicotine and other chemicals left on a variety of indoor surfaces by tobacco smoke. This residue reacts with indoor pollutants to create a toxic mix. Containing cancer-causing substances this third hand smoke is posing a potential health hazard to nonsmokers who are exposed to it, especially children.

As studies have shown thirdhand smoke clings to many things such as hair, skin, clothes, furniture, drapes, walls, bedding, carpets, dust, vehicles and other surfaces, even long after smoking has stopped. Individuals at risk such as Infants, children and nonsmoking adults may suffer tobacco-related health problems when they inhale, ingest or touch substances containing thirdhand smoke. Thirdhand smoke is a relatively new concept, and researchers are still studying its possible dangers.

DANGERS OF THIRD HAND SMOKING

For other people, tobacco smoking smoking (also known as "thirdhand smoking") is a serious concern, especially as it effects other people's health. In a house, Thirdhand smoke residue builds up on surfaces over time and resists normal cleaning. Thirdhand smoke can't be eliminated by airing out rooms, opening windows, using fans or air conditioners, or confining smoking to only certain areas of a home.[7] Scientists reported that Thirdhand smoke, may cause up to 60 percent of the harm caused by regular exposure to the smoke.[8]

The only way to protect nonsmokers, especially children from thirdhand smoke is to institute a smoke-free area.

SECOND HAND SMOKING VS THIRD HAND SMOKING

Second hand smoking (SHS) is a combination of the side stream smoke (i.e., smoke emitted from the burning cigarette, pipe, or cigar) and the mainstream smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers. It contains more than 4,000 chemicals, many of which are known to contribute to health effects. These chemicals include ammonia, acrolein, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, nicotine, nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and sulfur dioxide, as well as other chemicals that are eye and respiratory irritants, mutagens, carcinogens, and cardiovascular and reproductive toxicants.

Third hand smoking (THS) consists of residual tobacco smoke pollutants that remain on surfaces and in dust after tobacco has been smoked, are re-emitted into the gas phase, or react with oxidants and other compounds in the environment to yield secondary pollutants. Chemicals of THS include nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), phenol, cresols, naphthalene, formaldehyde, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (including some not found in freshly emitted tobacco smoke).[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicole Wolverton (Sep 2, 2010), Effects of Tar in Cigarette Smoke, Livestrong, retrieved Jan 16, 2013 
  2. ^ Luch, A. (2005), The Carcinogenic Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Imperial College Press, ISBN 1-86094-417-5 
  3. ^ Cigarette Manufacturer and Production - British American Tobacco Malaysia - Tar and Nicotine
  4. ^ British American tobacco (21 September 1966). "Minutes of the 32nd Meeting of the Chemistry Study Group". 
  5. ^ Tomar, Rajpal C.; Beaumont and Hsieh (August 2009). "Evidence on the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke" (PDF). Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  6. ^ http://www.livestrong.com/article/188243-the-effects-of-tar-in-smoking/
  7. ^ "Thirdhand smoke: What are the dangers to nonsmokers? - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2015-04-17. 
  8. ^ Sleiman, Mohamad; Logue, Jennifer M.; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F.; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo (November 18, 2014). "Inhalable Constituents of Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Chemical Characterization and Health Impact Considerations". Environmental Science & Technology 48 (22): 13093–13101. doi:10.1021/es5036333. ISSN 0013-936X. Retrieved 2015-04-17. 
  9. ^ "EHP – Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Emerging Evidence and Arguments for a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda". ehp.niehs.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-04-17.