||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (November 2013)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Nigeria: Plateau, Nasarawa, Taraba|
|Christianity, African traditional religion|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Ngas, Boghom, Tiv, Berom, Eggon, Jukun, Montol|
The Tarok People
The Tarok people call themselves as oTárók, their language as iTárók and their land ìTàrók. They are found principally in Langtang-North, Langtang-South, Wase, Mikang and Kanke Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Plateau State in Central Nigeria. Their main town of Langtang is located about 186 kilometres south-east of Jos, the state capital. They are also found in large numbers in Shendam, Qua'an-Pan, Kanam and Pankshin LGAs. Scattered in Nasarawa and Taraba states are Tarok farming communities. The people have been described to some extent in anthropological and ethnographical works by Fitzpatrick (1910), Roger Blench, Lamle (1995), Famwang and Longtau (1997). The oTárók are an amalgamation of various peoples who now form a more or less ‘homogeneous’ group. The constituents were of Pe, Ngas, Jukun, Boghom, Tel ( Montol ) and probably Tal origins, while others still remain obscure or unknown. The culture at a micro level portrays this admixture of peoples of the Tarok nation. The focus here is a description of their language.
Name of the Language
In the literature, other names have been used for Tarok as Appa, Yergam and its variants of Yergum and Yergem. The name Tarok itself has been wrongly spelt by some as Taroh. The name Appa on the other hand is used by the Jukun to refer to oTarok as a friendship term. These fresh insights are pointing to a conclusion that Tarok was a nickname given to the Tal/Ngas immigrants. The name of the original group is lost and has been replaced by the nickname. The term Pe-Tarok refers to the people who first spoke the original form of the language called Tarok today the mismatch notwithstanding. The origins of the peoples may be a knotty topic, but it is clear that Proto-Tarok is the parent of the language which is known as Tarok today (whatever might have been their original name).
Tarok in a sea of Chadic languages
Longtau described Tarok as one of the Benue–Congo languages which is almost completely submerged in a sea of Chadic languages. These languages include Ngas, Tel, Boghom, Hausa / Fulfulde and Yiwom. Its non-Chadic neighbours are Pe, Jukun-Wase and Yangkam. Tarok has spread considerably in the twentieth century and it now borders Wapan in the south-east. The Chadic languages belong to a different language family called Afroasiatic. Longtau explained that Tarok had settled in their present abode long before the eastern and southward movements of Boghom and Ngas respectively.
In the early twentieth century people from other ethnic groups such as Tal, Ngas, Jukun, Tel (Montol/Dwal) and Yiwom (Gerkawa) migrated and settled together with the initial Timwat and Funyallang clans. People from these ethnic groups came as migrants labour workers. The Timwat and Funyallang people gave them land to settle in Tarokland after they have served the former. Colonialism and Christianity came into Tarokland by 1904 (Lamle 1995). The initial inhabitants could not trust the missionaries and colonialists as such did not encourage their people to join them. with the introduction of modernism the later migrants to Tarokland used their connections to the missionaries and colonialists to acquire western education and join the army. Today these latter migrants are at the helm of affairs in Nigeria as such tries to use their influence to change history ( cf. Lamle 2005).
The framework of Tarok migration supports the assertion above and is based on the fact that the Tarok language is part of the Benue–Congo language family. However, other peoples of the Chadic language family, such as the Ngas, Boghom, Tel (Montol) and Yiwom, shifted to the Benue–Congo family and are given full status as Tarok (Lamle 1998). Also the Jukun, who speak languages of the Benue–Congo family, joined the Tarok. What is called the Tarok people are actually a mixture of many ethno-linguistic groups (Lamle 2008).
The Tarok people have an ancestral cult which retains considerable prestige and importance, despite major inroads of Christianity into the area. The ancestors, orìm, are represented by initiated males and post-menopausal women. Cult activities take place in sacred groves outside almost all Tarok settlements. Orìm are mostly heard, but emerge as masked figures under some circumstances, especially for the disciplining of ‘stubborn’ women and for making prophecies. Orìm figures speak through voice disguisers in a language dotted with code words although framed in normal Tarok syntax and their utterances are interpreted by unmasked figures.
Each Tarok settlement of any size has a sacred grove outside it, which is conserved as the place of the orim or ancestors. The singular form, ùrìm, is applied to a dead person or an ancestor, while orìm refers to the collective ancestors and the cult itself. Men above a certain age are allowed to enter the grove and engage with the ancestors. These inhabit the land of the dead and are thus in contact with all those who have died, including young people and children who were not admitted to the orìm. On certain nights when the ‘orìm are out’, women and children must stay in their houses. Orim can also be seen ‘dressed’, i.e. appearing as masquerades, when they engage with women through an interpreter. Surprisingly, most Tarok are Christian and Langtang hosts some large churches, but the association of the orìm with power ensures that these two systems continue to coexist. Indeed it is said that the orìm take care to visit the houses of the retired generals and other influential figures at night to cement the bonds between two very different types of power. Orìm society is graded, in the sense that there are members who are not fully initiated and so cannot be let into the inner secrets of the society. Some of the orìm vocabulary is therefore for internal concealment, that is, there are code-words among the elder members to conceal the meaning of what is being said from junior members.
The main function of the orim from the external point of view is to maintain order, both spiritual and actual, within the society but also to prepare for warfare and other collective action. In practice, maintaining order seems to be about disciplining women, who are forced to cook food as a punishment for being lazy or ‘stubborn’. This category of orìm is called orìm aga., literally ‘masquerade that gives trouble’ and its speciality is to fine women. There is a special season, aga. ‘time of trouble’, for meting out fines to offenders. The orìm are also in contact with the dead and it is believed that the spirits of dead children require to be fed; hence they will request special meals from the mother of such children. Orìm also have a marriage-broking function; for example, young women tell the orìm the name of the young man they would like to marry, and they find ways of passing on the message.
Prominent Tarok People
Lt. Gen Joshua Nimyel Dogonyaro (rtd), Lt Gen. Jeremiah Useni (rtd), Gen Domkat Bali (rtd), Brig Gen John Nanzip Shagaya (rtd and one time Senator), Major Gen. Joseph Nanven Garba (Deceased), Brig.Gen Musa Gambo (rtd), Brig. Gen Jonathan N Temlong (rtd), Brig. Gen Yakubu Rimdans (rtd), Brig. Gen Rimtip, Chief Solomon D. Lar, Professor Mary Lar former Nigerian Ambassador to The Hague, Netherlands, Air Marshal Jonah Domfa Wuyep (Former Chief of the Air Staff of the Nigerian Air Force), Prof. J.F. Jemkur (Dean of Arts & Professor of Archeology, University of Jos, Dr Elias Nankap Lamle, (University of Jos a graduate of Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium, under the Institute for Anthropology research in Africa, with emphasis on Conflict Management and peace studies,Dindam D. Killi, Esq (lawyer and former student leader) Joshua Nimyel (Ministry of Works and Housing, Plateau State Government) RTD Col. Dauda Nimyel (Ponzhi Gani) of the Pil-gani community. Brig. Gen Joseph Nimmyel (Defence HQTRS Abuja),Prince Goselle Obed Nanjul, (International Student Ambassador, Bangor University, United Kingdom). HRH Mr. Stanley Selchak Sambo, the ponzhi Bwarat , paramount ruler of Bwarat in Langtang North LGA. Chief Nanzing Nden (Dan Madamin Langtang), Senator Victor Lar (senator , representing Plateau south senatorial district of Plateau State Nigeria) Mr. N Nimfel (Director of Human Resources Management Federal Ministry of Justice Hqtrs Abuja), Chief Dan Dul (Barayan Langtang) Major Gen. Shidafa Nandul (rtd) (former intelligence Chief at Defence Hqtrs Abuja), Major Gen. Pennap (rtd), Prof. Stephen Banfa ( university of Jos), Air Commodore Banfa (rtd) among numerous other prominent Tarok people who are not mentioned here.
- Adive, J.R., 1989. The Verbal Piece in Ebira. Publication in Linguistics No. 85. Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.
- Lamle, E. N. Corporeality and Dwelling Spaces in Tarokland. Journal of Tarok studies: Nigerian Bible Translation Trust. Jos (Vol. 1 No 1 2005) pp 23
- Lamle, E. N. (1995). Cultural Revival and Church Planting: A Nigerian Case study. Jos: CAPRO Media
- Lamle, E. N. (2000). The Light Shines in Their hearts: COCIN and the Gospel in Tarokland. Jos: Crossroads Communication.
- Lamle, E. N., (1998). The Essentials of Traditional Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Tarok people. Jos: Crossroads Communications
- Lamle. E. N. Origin, Origin, Migration and Clan Structure of the Tarok People: Tree in the Forest Mandyeng: Journal of Central Nigeria Studies (pp 25–56 forth Coming)
- Roger Blench (1995c) with S. Longtau, Tarok Ophresiology. pp. 340–344 in Issues in African Languages and Linguistics: Essays in Honour of Kay Williamson. Emenanjọ, E.N. and Ndimele, O-M. eds. Aba, National Institute for Nigerian Languages.
- Kyanship and Kinship among the Tarok, by M. G. Smith and Mary F. Smith © 1990 Edinburgh University Press.
- Tarok Language Committee, 1980. Re i nyi iTarok. [Let’s Learn Tarok, An Alphabet Booklet] Tarok Language Committee, Langtang.
- Roger Blench and Longtau, Selbut R., (in prep.). Tarok Farming in its Cultural Setting.
- Roger Blench and Longtau, Selbut R., 1995. Tarok Ophresiology: An Investigation into the Tarok Terminology of Odour. In Issues in African Languages and Linguistics. Essays in Honour of Kay Williamson, ed. by E. Nolue Emenanjo and Ozo-mekuri Ndimele, pp. 340–344. Aba.
- Prof. Mary Lar, 1983. Nkuń ki iTarok 3. (Tarok Reader 3), Tarok Language Committee, Langtang.
- Prof. Mary Lar, and Longtau, S.R., 1985. Tarok Teachers' Notes for Reader 1, 2, and 3. Tarok Language Committee, Langtang.
- Prof. Mary Lar, et al. 1994. A Trilingual Tarok Dictionary. Nigeria Bible Translation Trust, Jos.
- Roger Blench and Longtau, S.R. (in prep). Tarok Adjectives 1: Morphology.
- Cooper, R.H., 1933. Wasika A Yohanna Ga Ngisi. The Langtang Church, S.U.M.
- Crozier, D.H. and Roger Blench 1992. An Index of Nigerian Languages. Summer Institute of Linguistics Dallas.
Tarok Related Publications by Selbut Longtau, and together with others, October 2013
1. Linguistic Evidence on the Origins of Peoples: The Case of the Tarok People of Plateau State (Nigeria). Afrika und Übersee, Band 74, 2, pp. 191-204, 1991, Berlin.
2. A Formal Tarok Phonology. Afrika und Übersee, Band 76, pp. 15-45, 1993, Berlin.
3. Tarok Children's Songs. Afrika und Übersee, Band 80, 233-253, 1997, Berlin.
4. Tarok Orthography. In: Orthographies of Nigerian Languages VI, E. Nolue Emenanjo ed., pp. 76-97. Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council, 2000, Abuja.
5. Some Historical Inferences from Lexical Borrowings and Traditions of Origins in the Tarokoid/Chadic Interface. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Endangered Languages in Contact: Plateau Languages of Nigeria in Honour of Prof. (Dr.) Ludwig Gerhardt on the occasion of His Retirement, Held at Afrika-Asien Institute, University of Hamburg, 25th-26th March 2004, (in press), Hamburg.
6. An Exploration for Linguistic Evidence of Inter-Group Relations between Speakers of Tarok and other East Benue-Congo Languages in Prehistory. In a Festschrift in Honour of Prof. Munzali Jibril, Ed. Ndimele, M&J Grand Orbit Communications Ltd. & Emhai Press, Port Harcourt, pp. 291-330:2007.
7. Principles and practice of a system for writing Tarok accurately. Nggapak Vol. 1, No. 2, 2007, Jos. 8. Comparative morphology of Tarok and Plateau Noun Cognates. Nggapak Vol. 1, No. 3 2007.
9. Tarok Naming System. Nggapak Vol. No. 3, 2007, Jos.
10. Linguistics and Archaeology: Historical Inferences from Cognates for Bulrush Millet in Plateau and a Review of Research Methodology. In a Festschrift in Honour of Prof. Conrad Brann, Eds. O.-M. Ndimele, I.I.L Udoh and O. Anyanwu, 2008, M&J Grand Orbit Communications Ltd. & Emhai Press, Port Harcourt, pp. 233-256:2008.
11. Tarok Language: Its Basic Principles and Grammar, DART, Jos. Monograph No. 1, Kay Williamson Educational Foundation (KWEF), pp. 1-240: 2008.
12. Towards a Methodology of Accelerated language development in Nigeria, the bottom-up approach. In a Festschrift in Honour of Prof. Ben O. Elugbe. Ed. Ndimele, 2010, Port Harcourt.
13. Recent Approaches to Language Development in Nigeria. A report presented at the workshop on West Kainji languages held on 10-12th March, 2008 at Safara Motel, Kontagora, Niger state, Nigeria, sponsored by Kay Williamson Educational Foundation (at KWEF Website).
14. Their Tongues Still Speak Loud: A Linguistic Evaluation of the Oral Traditions of Origin of Some Peoples of Plateau State. In Advances in Minority Language Research in Nigeria. Volume 1, Koln, Germany, 2012, pp.67-104.
15. Minimum essentials for effective orthography designs in Nigeria. Forthcoming in Advances in Minority Language Research in Nigeria. Volume 2, Koln, Germany.
16. Tarok Teachers' Notes for Reader 1, 2, and 3. Lar, M.N., and Selbut R. Longtau. Tarok Language Committee, Langtang, 1985.
17. A Trilingual Tarok Dictionary. Lar, M.N.; Selbut R. Longtau and Pam. Bendor-Samuel Nigeria Bible Translation Trust, Jos, 1994.
18. Tarok Ophresiology: An Investigation into the Tarok Terminology of Odour. Blench, R.M. and Selbut R. Longtau, 1995. In Issues in African Languages and Linguistics. Essays in Honour of Kay Williamson, ed. by E. Nolue Emenanjo and Ozo-mekuri Ndimele, Aba, pp. 340-344, 1995.
19. A Synopsis of Tarok Oral Traditions of Origin and the Way Forward. Jemkur J.F. and Selbut R. Longtau. Nggapak Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005
20. Tarok Adjectives 1: Morphology. Blench, R.M. and Selbut R. Longtau, (in press: Journal of West African Linguistics.). 21. Tarok Dictionary and an English-Tarok Finderlist. Selbut R. Longtau and Roger M. Blench (in press.
22. Some Archaeological and Linguistic Insights for Understanding the Peopling of the Jos Plateau and the Indigene/Settler Question. Selbut R. Longtau and Joseph Mangut. JOLAN (Journal of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria) 11: pp. 41-58, 2008.
23. Tarok Pronouns (2010). Blench, R.M. and Selbut R. Longtau, Germany.
24. Tarok Burial and Funeral Rites. In ed. Albert Lannap: Tarok Woman. University of Jos, Press, Jos, (2000). (Ethnographical) 25. Tarok Agriculture in Context. Nggapak Vol. 1. No. 4. (Ethnographical)
26. A descriptive categorization of Tarok songs. Nggapak Vol. 1. No. 5. (Ethnographical)
27. Evolution of Western Education in Tarok land. Selbut R. Longtau and Isaac Barko Lar. In: Nggapak Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 71-82, (2005). (Ethnographical)
28. A Cradle of the Tarok Nations (ed.) pp 205. (Ethnographical) 29. Lingual Code: Interpretations of Aspects of Tarok Culture and History using linguistic insights. Pp. 200. (Ethnographical)
30. The Role of Oral Literature in Conflict Mediation: the Case of the Tarok of Plateau State Central Nigeria. A Paper Prepared for 23rd Conference of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria held at University of Port Harcourt, 29th November – 3rd December 2010 in Honour of Prof. (Mrs.) Chinyere Aniche-Ohiri. (Conflict Management)
31. Morphology of noun formation strategies in Tarok of Central Nigeria. Chapter contribution to a book in review.
32. Spatial distribution of cognates in Plateau: a Tarok case study and its implications for language classification schemas. A Paper Prepared for 25th Conference of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria to be held at AAUA, Ondo3rd – 6th December 2012.
33. A Tarok gender register. In press, Cultural Anthropology, USA. Selbut Longtau and Roger Blench. (Ethnographical)
34. Tarok Farming in its Cultural Setting. Roger Blench and Selbut R. Longtau. (Ethnographical)
35. Introduction. In: Jemkur ed.: A History of the Tarok Nations. J.F. Jemkur and Selbut R. Longtau. A Project supported by a Research Grant, Office of the Vice Chancellor, University of Jos, Jos. (Ethnographical)
36. Locatives and locative phrases in Tarok. Roger Blench and Selbut Longtau, in review.
37. A Handbook on Tarok Culture (in prep.). Selbut Longtau, Habila Miner and Bernard B. Poyi
38. Nggapak: The Journal of the Society for Tarok Studies. Numbers 1-6.eptember 2013 39. Icu oTarok Number 1, September 2013: A News Magazine published by Ngwang Ishi oTarok Cultural Organization.