Thai royal and noble titles

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"Chao Fa" redirects here. For the title used by some rulers of the Shan states, see Saopha.

Thai royal and noble titles are the royal and noble styles signifying relationship to the King introduced by King Trailokanat, who reigned 1448 to 1488. The system is rooted in the Thai language equivalent of feudalism, Sakdina (ศักดินา: literally, power over fields). It is somewhat similar to that of peerage, but is complicated and usually not well understood even by most Thais. A particular title of honor may not be confined to just the beginning or the end of the name, but may be split across the name as will be demonstrated. Those who possessed titles ceased to be designated by personal names and were never spoken of except by the awarded or other similar titles.[1] Another point about the titles is that the King has the power to bestow any title on anybody, regardless of the rule. However, such promotion is personal and the children of the person will not normally benefit from it (see, for example, Phra Worawong Ther Phra Ong Chao).

The King (Sovereign)[edit]

See also Rama (Kings of Thailand)

There are two titles which can be used for a king (depending on coronation status).

Phrabat Somdech Phra Chao Yu Hua ("Crowned King")[edit]

Phrabat Somdech Phra Chao Yu Hua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว) is the normal title used by the kings of Thailand (Siam) after coronation. There are two ways that this title can be used
It can precede the name of the king – For example
Phrabat Somdech Phra Chao Yu Hua Bhumibol Adulyadej, in less formal usage than the next possibility.
It can be split across the name, possibly with omission or modification of the words "Phra Chao Yu Hua".
Phrabat Somdech Phra Paramindara Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej
Phrabat Somdech Phra Paramindara Maha Prajadhipok Phra Pokklao Chaoyuhua.

Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua ("Uncrowned King")[edit]

Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua (สมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว) is restricted to a king who has not yet gone through coronation, normally precedes the king's name, but once crowned, he will use the title Phrabat Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua.

Sovereign's Consorts[edit]

Traditionally, titles of the royal wives depended both on their birth titles and royal favour, with only the princesses who are of high birth (Chao Fa, Phra Ong Chao, Mom Chao Ying) taking up titles higher than Chao Chom. There were no clear rules about the hierarchy of the titles above Chao Chom until the time of King Mongkut and even then the titles kept changing over the successive reigns.

The rule about commoners also seems to be evolving over time; it appears that there are no more restrictions keeping a commoner from becoming queen.

Most of the titles listed here are taken from the time King Vajiravudh enacted the Succession Law in 1924.

Sovereign's Consorts
Rank Title Style Remarks
Somdet Phra Akkhara Mahesi
สมเด็จพระอัครมเหสี
(Supreme Royal Consort)
Somdet Phra Boromma Rajininat
สมเด็จพระบรมราชินีนาถ
(the Queen Regent)
Somdet Phra Nang Chao + Name + Phra Boromma Rajini Nat
Her Majesty The Queen
Nat (นาถ) means "shelter"
Somdet Phra Boromma Rajini
สมเด็จพระบรมราชินี
Somdet Phra Nang Chao + Name + Phra Boromma Rajini
Her Majesty The Queen
Somdet Phra Rajini
สมเด็จพระราชินี
Somdet Phra Rajini + Name Temporary Title Before Crowned
Phra Mahesi
พระมเหสี
(Royal Consort)
Somdet Phra Boromma Rajadevi
สมเด็จพระบรมราชเทวี
Somdet Phra Nang Chao + Name + Phra Boromma Rajadevi
Her Majesty The Queen
Somdet Phra Akkhara Rajadevi
สมเด็จพระอัครราชเทวี
Somdet Phra Nang Chao + Name + Phra Akkhara Rajadevi
Her Majesty The Queen
Phra Akkhara Rajadevi
พระอัครราชเทวี
Phra Nang Chao + Name + Phra Akkhara Rajadevi
Her Royal Highness Princess, Royal Consort
Phra Vara Rajadevi
พระวรราชเทวี
Phra Nang Chao + Name + Phra Vara Rajadevi
Her Royal Highness Princess, Royal Consort
Phra Rajadevi
พระราชเทวี
Phra Nang Chao + Name + Phra Rajadevi
Her Royal Highness Princess, Royal Consort
Phra Nang Thoe
พระนางเธอ
Phra Nang Thoe + Name
Her Royal Highness Princess, Royal Consort
Phra Akkhara Chaya Thoe
พระอรรคชายาเธอ
Phra Akkhara Chaya Thoe + Name
Her Highness Princess, Royal Consort
Phra Raja Chaya Thoe
พระราชชายาเธอ
Phra Raja Chaya Thoe + Name
Her Highness Princess, Royal Consort
Phra Sanom
พระสนม
(Royal Concubine)
Chao Khun Chom Manda
เจ้าคุณจอมมารดา
(Supreme Royal Concubine)
Chao Khun Chom Manda + Name Appointed to
* Foreign Princess
* Mom Chao (Her Serene Highness Princess)
* Mom Rajawongse
* Mom Laung
* The commoners
When they were pregnant, they appointed to
Chao Chom Manda. Manda means Mother
Phra was used in Rama VI
Chao Chom Manda
เจ้าจอมมารดา
Chao Chom Manda + Name
Chom Manda
จอมมารดา
Chom Manda + Name
Chao Chom
เจ้าจอม
Chao Chom + Name
Phra
พระ
Phra + Name

Princes and Princesses[edit]

Holders of these titles are still considered royal as they are at most two generations down from a king. "Nai Luang" (ในหลวง) is an epithet for a king.[2] Consequently, those who are children of a king are called "Luk Luang" (ลูก หลวง – 'royal children') and those who are grandchildren of a king are called "Laan Luang" (หลานหลวง – 'royal grandchildren'). In English translation, they are normally called "prince" or princess". Special forms of language are also used when one wishes to speak to them, although the language is less elaborate than when speaking to the king or the queen. A male Luk Luang who does not accede to the throne would also start a new royal surname, which normally reflects his birth name (as opposed to an honorific name given later). The surname can be used by his wife if she is a commoner by birth, possibly with Na Ayudhya added if she has no noble title. It is otherwise not normally used until his children or grandchildren first hold the title of Mom Chao, when the surname will first appear in their names.

Sovereign's Children[edit]

Further information: Saopha
Order of Precedence of Sovereign's Children
Rank Title Remarks
Thai English
Somdech Chao Fa Somdech Phra Anujadhiraj His Royal Highness Prince Elevated to Heir Apparent by Rama VI
Higher than the other royal family. For example,
Somdech Chao Fa
Special Class
His Royal Highness Prince Elevated to Special Class by Rama VII as well as Bhanurangsi Savangvongse, Prince Banubandhu Vongsevoradej
Somdech Phra Choa Baromwongse Ther
Chao Fa
(First Class)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For Sovereign's Children with
  1. The Queen
  2. Royal Consorts who are sovereign's daughter
Somdech Phra Choa Baromwongse Ther
Chao Fa
(Second Class)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For Sovereign's Children with
  1. Royal Consorts
  2. Foreign Princess
Phra Ong Chao
First Class
Phra Choa Baromwongse Ther
Phra Ong Chao
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For Sovereign's Children with
  1. HSH Princess
  2. Royal Concubine

Maha Uparaj's Children[edit]

Order of Precedence of Maha Uparaj's Children
Rank Title Remarks
Thai English
Special Class Phra Chao Rajvorawongse Ther Chao Fa
(พระเจ้าราชวรวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้า)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For children of Maha Uparaj's with Royal Consort who is Princess.
Phra Ong Chao Phra Chao Rajvorawongse Ther
Phra Ong Chao

(พระเจ้าราชวรวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้า)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For children of Maha Uparaj
  1. Maha Sura Singhanat
  2. Maha Senanurak
  3. Maha Sakdi Balasebya
  4. Pinklao
Phra Rajvorawongse Ther
Phra Ong Chao

(พระราชวรวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้า)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For children of Wichaichan

Sovereign's Grandchildren[edit]

Order of Precedence of Sovereign's Grandchildren
Rank Title Remarks
Thai English
Special Class Phra Chao Lanh Ther Chao Fa
(พระเจ้าหลานเธอ เจ้าฟ้า)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For children of the Sovereign's daughters or Sovereign's sisters with Prince. They are the Third Class of Chao Fa
Phra Ong Chao Phra Chao Lanh Ther Phra Ong Chao
(พระเจ้าหลานเธอ พระองค์เจ้า)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For children of the Sovereign's sons (First Class) with Princess or Royal Consort.

After their grandfather's reign, their title shall change to Phra Chao Voravongse Ther Phra Ong Chao (พระเจ้าวรวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้า)

Phra Lanh Ther Phra Ong Chao
(พระหลานเธอ พระองค์เจ้า)
His Highness Prince/Princess For children of
  1. The Sovereign's sons (First Class) with commoner who elevated by The King
  2. The Sovereign's sons (Second Class) with Princess.

After their grandfather's reign, their title shall change to Phra Voravongse Ther Phra Ong Chao (พระวรวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้า)

Phra Sambandhawongse Ther
Phra Ong Chao

(พระสัมพันธเธอ พระองค์เจ้า)
His Highness Prince/Princess For children of Prince Matayabitaksa, the maternal grandfather of Rama V
Mom Chao Mom Chao
(หม่อมเจ้า)
His Serene Highness Prince/Princess For children of the Sovereign's sons with commoner.

Sovereign's Nephew/Niece[edit]

Order of Precedence of Sovereign's Nephew/Niece
Rank Title Remarks
Thai English
Chao Fa Phra Sambhandhawongse Ther
Chao Fa

(พระสัมพันธวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้า)
His Royal Highness Prince/Princess For children of the Rama I's eldest sisters; Princess Debsudavadi and Princess Sri Sudaraksha
Phra Ong Chao Phra Prabhandhawongse Ther
Phra Ong Chao

(พระประพันธวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้า)
His Highness Prince/Princess For children of Anuraksha Deveshra, the Deputy Vice King with Royal Consort.
Mom Chao Mom Chao
(หม่อมเจ้า)
His Serene Highness Prince/Princess For children of
  1. sons/daughters of Princess Debsudavadi and Princess Sri Sudaraksha 's son
  2. sons/daughters of Anuraksha Deveshra, the Deputy Vice King with conbubine.

Maha Uparaj's Grandchildren[edit]

Order of Precedence of Maha Uparaj's Grandchildren
Rank Title Remarks
Thai English
Mom Chao Mom Chao
(หม่อมเจ้า)
His Serene Highness Prince/Princess For the Sovereign's Grandchildren.

Sovereign's Great Grandchildren[edit]

Order of Precedence of Sovereign's Great Grandchildren
Rank Title Remarks
Thai English
Mom Chao Mom Chao
(หม่อมเจ้า)
His Serene Highness Prince/Princess For children of the Sovereign's grandchildren in the class of Phra Chao Lanh Thor Phra Ong Chao (HRH Prince)
Mom Rajawongse Mom Rajawongse
(หม่อมราชวงศ์)
Mom Rajawongse For children of the Sovereign's grandchildren in the class of Phra Lanh Thor Phra Ong Chao (HH Prince) and Mom Chao (HSH Price) . They are not member of the royal family.

Royal Descendant[edit]

More distant royal progeny, starting from the children of male Mom Chao, are considered commoners. However, these commoners have titles and style to indicate that their ancestry can be traced back to a king.

Mom Rajawongse[edit]

Mom Rajawongse (หม่อมราชวงศ์, RTGS: Mom Ratchawong; abbreviated in Thai as ม.ร.ว. or in English as M.R. and also translated into English as The Honourable) is the title assumed by children of male Mom Chao. Informally, they may be styled as Khun Chai(m).../Khunying(f)... (คุณชาย.../คุณหญิง...). Holders of this title are occasionally erroneously referred to as princes/princesses in older English translated older documents; it is more common these days to use the correct title of "Mom Rajawongse".

Mom Luang[edit]

Mom Luang (หม่อมหลวง, abbreviated in Thai as ม.ล. and sometimes in English as M.L. and translated into English as The Honourable) are the last royal descendants still retaining a title. Mom Luang titles are conferred on children of male Mom Rajawongse. Colloquially, though incorrectly, they are sometimes addressed as "Mom"; the correct informal address is "Khun" (คุณ).

na Ayudhya[edit]

According to Family Name Act, B.E.2465, Rama VI ordered that royal descendants who do not hold any title should append the words "Na Ayudhya" (ณ อยุธยา) to their surname, to signify they are descended from a royal blood line.

Title of Wife of Prince[edit]

Wives of the princes also have titles. Again, this depends on the titles of both sides.

Phra Vorachaya[edit]

Phra Vorachaya (พระวรชายา) is a title of the royal consort of the Crown Prince. She shall be elevated to Phra Chao Vorawongse Ther Phra Ong Chao.

Phra Chaya[edit]

Phra Chaya (พระชายา) is a princess, Chao Fa (HRH Princess) or Phra Ong Chao (HRH Princess) who is married to prince, for every level. She retains her own title. When referring to her as a wife of the prince, she may be called "Phra Chaya Nai [Husband's name]".

Chaya[edit]

Chaya (ชายา) is a is a princess, Mom Chao (HSH Princess) who is married to prince, for every level. Again, she would retain her own title. When referring to her as a wife of the prince, she may be called "Chaya Nai [Husband's name]".

Mom[edit]

Mom (หม่อม) in this context is a commoner married to a prince. She will use this title to prefix her name and add the word na Ayudhya to her new surname, for example: Mom Srirasmi Mahidol na Ayudhya (a wife of Chao Fa Maha Vajiralongkorn, whose surname is Mahidol). However, if she has her own title Mom Rajawonge and Mom Luang, she would retain her own title.

Style of Married Princess[edit]

Generally speaking, a child of a holder of the following titles inherits the title which is one step below. However, the inheritance is on the male line only: a female Mom Rajawongse married to a plain commoner would produce a child with no title. According to Royal Marriages Act, B.E. 2475, a princess who require to marry to a commoner shall ask for royal permission and abandon her royal title. For example, if princess, (Chao Fa, HRH Princess of Thailand), wishes to marry to Mom Rajawongse, the commoner, she shall lost her royal title (Chao Fa, HRH Princess of Thailand) but she remains royal style as following:

  • (Chao Fa, HRH Princess of Thailand) : "Tunkramom Ying", courtesy style of the daughter of Sovereign with the Queen
  • (Chao Fa, HRH Princess of Thailand) : "Somdech Ying", courtesy style of the daughter of the Sovereign with the Royal Consort
  • (Phra Ong Chao, HRH Princess of Thailand) : "Sdech Phra Ong Ying", courtesy style of the daughter of the Sovereign with the Concubine
  • (Phra Ong Chao, HRH Princess of Thailand) : "Phra Ong Ying", courtesy style of the daughter of the son of Sovereign with Queen/Royal Consort and his royal consort
  • (Phra Ong Chao, HH Princess of Thailand) : "Than Phra Ong Ying", courtesy style of the daughter of the son of Sovereign who was elevated form Mom Chao to Phra Ong Chao
  • (Mom Chao, HSH Princess of Thailand) : "Than Ying", courtesy style of the daughter of the son of Sovereign and his consort or great granddaughter of the Sovereign

However, Chao Fa Chulabhonwalailak, was granted permission by the King to keep her title when she married Sqn. Ldr. Weerayut Disayasirin, a commoner.

Nobility[edit]

The nobility of Siamese Feudalism had enacted by King Trai Lokkanart, king of Ayutthaya Kingdom, in 1454. The Act of Sakdina of Civil, Military and Colony had classified the group of citizen by role and responsibilities as follows Royal Family, Nobility, Bhikkhu, Commoners and Slave.

The nobility is a major part of the Thai Honour System for rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the monarch. The Sovereign confers peerages including legitimate titles of nobility and orders of chivalry. Thai Peerage is an honour under the Crown, the holder can be withdraw or elevate to higher rank. The peerage consists of a prefix, which signifies the rank (บรรดาศักดิ์Bandasakdi), and an honorific name (ราชทินนามRaja Dinnanam). Before Siamese revolution of 1932, the peerage are four groups:

  • Royal Peerage
  • Peerage of Civil and Military
  • Peerage of Courtier
  • Peerage of Clergy

Titles of Royal Peerage[edit]

The Royal Peerage enacted by King Narayana, the Great for rewarding to royal family. The peer holder shall have Krom for managing his/her household and staffs. The ranks of the royal peerage are

Somdech Phra (สมเด็จพระ)[edit]

The highest rank of royal peerage usually granted to the Queen Mother, Princess Mother and Maha Uparaj. Somdech Phra created by Rama VI replacing Krom Somdech

Moreover, the Sovereign can granted to other royal family for special rewarding as follow:

  1. Somdech Phra Prathom Barom Raj Janaka : HRH Prince Father of Rama I
  2. Somdech Phra Rupsirisobakya Mahanaknari : HRH Princess Rupsirisobakya Mahanaknari, Mother of Queen Amarindra
  3. Somdech Phra Piyamavadi Sri Bajarindra Mata : HRH Princess Piyamavadi Sri Bajarindra Mata, Mother of Queen Saovabha Bongsri
  4. Somdech Phra Sri Savarindira Barom Raja Devi : HM Queen Sri Savarindira, Queen Grandmother of Rama VI and Rama VII
  5. Somdech Phra Mahitaladhibesh Adulyadechvikrom Phra Barom Raj Janaka : HRH Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, Prince Father of Rama VI and Rama VII
  6. Somdech Phra Debaratana Raj Suda Chao Fa Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Sayam Barom Raj Kumari : HRH Princess Sirindhorn

Krom Phraya (กรมพระยา)[edit]

Kromma Phra (กรมพระ)[edit]

Kromma Luang (กรมหลวง)[edit]

Kromma Khun (กรมขุน)[edit]

Kromma Muen (กรมหมื่น)[edit]

Titles of Peerage of Civil and Military[edit]

Gentlemen[edit]

These titles were given only to males and not inheritable much like a life peerage. European equivalents were also used on diplomatic missions.[1] While all are obsoleted, note that Phan and Nai, have modern word usages. The titles of peerage of civil and military were organised position in the formal order of precedence as following:

  • Somdech Chao Phraya : The honorable title that was awarded under extraordinary circumstances only to those with great achievements. This title is equivalent to royal peerage. There have only been four persons in Siam's history to be elevated to this title.
  1. Somdech Chao Phraya Maha Kshatriyas Suek : Granted by King Taksin of Thonburi
  2. Somdech Chao Phraya Barom Maha Bijaya Yati : Granted by Rama IV
  3. Somdech Chao Phraya Barom Maha Prayurawongse : Granted by Rama IV
  4. Somdech Chao Phraya Barom Maha Sri Suriyawongse : Granted by Rama V
  • Chao Phraya (เจ้าพระยา) : It conferred to most senior commissioned officer by Royal Letter of Appointment. Holders of this title are informally addressed and referred to as "Chao Khun" (เจ้าคุณ). This title was classified to 3 classes by the royal letter of appointment
  1. Gold Class, engraved his title on gold leaf, for Minister who are Mom Rajawongse or Mom Luang or honorably awarded to commoners.
  2. Silver Class, engraved his title on silver leaf, for Ministers who are commoner or honorably awarded persons.
  3. Regularly Class for honorably awarded persons.
  • Phraya (พระยา) : It conferred to commissioned officers who served as Permanent Secretary of Ministry, Director-General, Mayor of Important City, Commander-in-chief and Chancellor of Royal Office (Krom Phraya). Holders of this title are informally addressed and referred to as "Chao Khun" (เจ้าคุณ).
  • Phra (พระ) : It conferred to commissioned officers who served as Senior Level, and Chancellor of Royal Office (Kromma Phra).
  • Phra (พระ) : It conferred to commissioned officers who are Mom Rajawongse. This title is equivalent to Phra.
  • Luang (หลวง) : It conferred to commissioned officers who served as Junior Level, and Chancellor of Royal Office (Kromma Phra).
  • Khun (ขุน) : It conferred to senior non-commissioned officers, and Chancellor of Royal Office (Kromma Khun).
  • Muen (หมื่น) : It conferred to non-commissioned officers, and Chancellor of Royal Office (Kromma Khun).
  • Phan (พัน ) : It was the lowest rank conferred to non-commissioned officers. In the current, it's conferred by military ranks of the Thai armed forces

Ladies[edit]

These titles were given only to females and not inheritable much like a life peerage. The titles of peerage of civil and military were organised position in the formal order of precedence as following:

  • Thanphuying (ท่านผู้หญิง) : It conferred to
    • Wife of Somdech Chao Phraya and Chao Phraya who conferred dignity as Thanphuying. Her title was Thanphuying + her husband honorific name as well as Thanpuying Yommaraj (Wive of Chao Phraya Yommaraj). When her husband died, her title change to Thanphuying + Name + Her husband honorific name as well as Thanpuying Talab Yommaraj (Dowager Wive of Chao Phraya Yommaraj). (Obsoleted)
    • Married lady who appointed to Dame Grand Commander of Order of Chula Chom Klao.
  • Khunying (คุณหญิง) : It conferred to
    • Wife of Phraya who conferred dignity as Khunying. Her title was Khunying + her husband honorific name as well as Khunying Anuman Rajadhon (Wive of Phraya Anuman Rajadhon). When her husband died, her title change to Khunying + Name + Her husband honorific name as well as Khunying Lamai Anuman Rajadhon (Dowager Wive of Phraya Anuman Rajadhon). (Obsoleted)
    • Married lady who appointed to Commander, Companion and Member of Order of Chula Chom Klao.

Remark: If her have title as Mom Rajawongse or Mom Luang, her title do not use to Khunying

  • Khun (คุณ) : It conferred to unmarried lady who appoint to Commander, Companion and Member of Order of Chula Chom Klao.
  • Nang (นาง) : It conferred to wive of nobility below Phra. (Obsoleted)

Peerage of Courtier[edit]

Gentlemen[edit]

  • Chao Muen (เจ้าหมื่น) : It conferred to Lord Steward. This title is higher than Phra and below than Phraya. (Obsoleted)
  • Chamuen (จมื่น) : It conferred to Chief-Commander of Royal Guard. This title is higher than Phra and below than Phraya. (Obsoleted)
  • Thaw (หลวง นายเวร) : It conferred to Lord Steward. This title is higher than Luang and below than Phra. (Obsoleted)
  • Luang Mae Chao (จ่า) : It conferred to Senior Pages. This title is equivalent to Luang (Obsoleted)
  • Nai, Hum Prae (นาย หุ้มแพร) : It conferred to Senior Pages. This title is equivalent to Khun (Obsoleted)
  • Nai Rong, Hum Prae (นายรอง หุ้มแพร) : It conferred to Junior Pages. This title is equivalent to Muen (Obsoleted)

Ladies[edit]

  • Chao Khun (เจ้าคุณ) (Obsoleted)
  • Thaw (ท้าว) (Obsoleted)
  • Luang Mae Chao (หลวงแม่เจ้า) (Obsoleted)
  • Cha (จ่า) (Obsoleted)

Peerage of Clergy[edit]

Khun (courtesy title)[edit]

Khun (คุณ) is a courtesy title pronounced with a mid tone and should not be confused with the similarly spelled tree; or with the feudal title Khun (ขุน) that is pronounced in rising tone. The courtesy title is used for children born to a noble mother who gave up her title to marry a man of lesser rank, a well-known example being Khun Poom Jensen. Today, this word is used informally to courteously address virtually anyone apart from those who actually hold a title of Mom Rajawongse or higher. It stands in T–V distinction to thoe (เธอ).[3]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Roberts, Edmund (Digitized October 12, 2007) [First published in 1837]. "Chapter XIX―titles of the king". Embassy to the Eastern courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat : in the U. S. sloop-of-war Peacock ... during the years 1832-3-4. Harper & brothers. pp. 301–303. Retrieved April 25, 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ "คนไทยรักนายหลวง" [Thai people love the King]. Community page. Google+. August 31, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-08-31. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Thai words for 'you'". Retrieved 22 Apr 2010. 

References[edit]

  • Jones Robert B., 1971, Thai Titles and Ranks, Including a Translation of Royal Lineage in Siam by King Chulalongkorn, Data Paper No. 81. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Department of Asian Studies, Cornell University
  • Finestone Jeffrey, 1989, The Royal Family of Thailand: The Descendants of King Chulalongkorn
  • Rabibhadana M.R. Akin, 1996, The Organization of Thai Society in the Early Bangkok Period 1782 – 1873
  • Foreign Correspondents' Club of Thailand, 2007, The King of Thailand in World Focus
  • "RID 1999" (Online). The Royal Institute of Thailand. Select initial letter then enter full spelling 

External links[edit]