Theodoor Rombouts (2 July 1597 – 14 September 1637) was a Flemish Baroque painter specializing in Caravaggesque genre scenes of card players and musicians.
His wife Anna van Thielen and their daughter, pendant portrait to Van Dyck's portrait of Rombouts
Rombouts was born and died in Antwerp. He studied under Abraham Janssens in Antwerp and Nicolas Régnier. He traveled to Rome in 1616 and stayed there until 1625. When he got back he became a member of the Guild of St. Luke and in 1627 he married Anna van Thielen, the sister of Jan Philip van Thielen, who became his pupil in 1631. From 1628-1630 he was deacon of the Guild in Antwerp. He painted many merry companies, or music scenes and parties at a table playing cards and drinking. He was heavily influenced by Caravaggio.
According to Houbraken, he was a hard worker and eager learner who visited Italy and other lands, becoming a highly respected master painter on his return.
His pupils were Nicolaas van Eyck, Jan Philips van Thielen and Paulus Robyns.