Tom Frieden

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Tom Frieden
Thomas Frieden official CDC portrait.jpg
16th Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Assumed office
8 June 2009
President Barack Obama
Preceded by Julie Gerberding
New York City Health Commissioner
In office
Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Personal details
Political party Democratic

Thomas R. Frieden is the Director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). He served as Commissioner of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene from 2002–2009.


Frieden graduated from Oberlin College (BA), Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons (MD) and Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health (MPH). He completed training in internal medicine at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and sub-specialty training in infectious diseases at Yale University. One brother, Jeffry Frieden, is a noted international political economist and the Stanfield Professor of International Peace at Harvard University.[1] His other brother, Ken Frieden, the B.G. Rudolph Professor at Syracuse University, specializes in nineteenth-century literature.[2]

Early career[edit]

Frieden's work on tuberculosis in New York fostered public awareness and helped improve public funding (city, state and federal) for TB control.[3][4] The epidemic was controlled rapidly, reducing overall incidence by nearly half and cutting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by 80%.[5] The city's program became a model for tuberculosis control.[6][7] From 1996 to 2002, Frieden was based in India, assisting with national tuberculosis control efforts. As a medical officer for the World Health Organization on loan from the CDC, he helped the government of India implement the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP).[8][9][10][11] The 2008 RNTCP status report estimates the nationwide program resulted in 8 million treatments and 1.4 million saved lives.[12] While in India, Frieden worked to establish a network of Indian physicians to help India's state and local governments implement the program[13] and helped the Tuberculosis Research Center in Chennai, India, establish a program to monitor the impact of tuberculosis control services.[14][15]


Frieden served as head of the New York City DOHMH from 2002–2009.[citation needed] The agency employs more than 6,000 people[16] with an annual budget of $1.5 billion.[17] Frieden led a period marked by improvements in the health of New Yorkers.[18]

Tobacco control[edit]

Upon his appointment as Health Commissioner in January 2002, Frieden made tobacco control a priority,[19] resulting in a rapid decline[20] after a decade of no change in smoking rates. Frieden established a system to monitor the city's smoking rate, and worked with New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg to increase tobacco taxes,[21] ban smoking from workplaces including restaurants and bars, and run aggressive anti-tobacco ads and help smokers quit.[22] The program reduced smoking prevalence among New York City adults from 21.6% in 2002 to 16.9% in 2007– a change that represents 300,000 fewer smokers and could prevent 100,000 premature deaths in future years.[20][23] Smoking prevalence among New York City teens declined even more sharply, from 17.6% in 2001 to 8.5% in 2007, and is now less than half the national rate.[24] The workplace smoking ban prompted spirited debate before it was passed by the New York City Council and signed into law by Mayor Bloomberg.[25] Over time, the measure has gained broad acceptance by the public and business community in New York City.[26][27] New York City's 2003 workplace smoking ban was among those following California's ban in 1994. Frieden supports increased cigarette taxes as a means of forcing smokers to quit, saying "tobacco taxes are the most effective way to reduce tobacco use."[28] Frieden supported the 62-cent Federal tax on each cigarette pack sold in the United States, introduced in April 2009.[29]

Take Care New York[edit]

Frieden also introduced Take Care New York, the city's first comprehensive health policy. This program targeted ten leading causes of preventable illness and death for concerted public and personal action.[30][31] By 2006, New York City had made measurable progress in eight of the ten priority areas.[32]


As Health Commissioner, Frieden sought to fight HIV/AIDS with public health principles used successfully to control other communicable diseases.[33] The most controversial aspect of this strategy was a proposal to eliminate separate written consent for HIV testing. Frieden believes the measure would encourage physicians to offer HIV tests during routine medical care,[34] as the CDC recommends.[35] Some community and civil liberties advocates fought this legislation arguing it would undermine patients' rights and lead eventually to forced HIV testing.[36][37] In 2010, New York State passed a new law that eased the requirement for separate written consent in some circumstances.[38] On 14 February 2007, the NYCDHMH also introduced the NYC Condom,[39][40] prompting Catholic League president Bill Donohue to respond, "What's next? The city's own brand of clean syringes?"[41] More than 36 million were given away in 2007.[42]


Frieden worked to raise awareness about diabetes in New York City, particularly among pregnant women,[43] and established an involuntary, non-disclosed hemoglobin A1C diabetes registry that tracks patients' blood sugar control over several months and report that information to treating physicians in an effort to help them provide better care.[44][45] The New York City Board of Health's decision to require laboratories to report A1C test results has generated a heated debate among civil libertarians, who view it as a violation of medical privacy and an intrusion into the doctor-patient relationship.[46] Even though patients can choose to not receive information from the program, there is no provision enabling patients to opt out of having their glycemic control data entered in the database. The New York City DOHMH asserts that the A1C registry can help reduce the risk of blindness, kidney failure, leg amputations and early death among people with diabetes.[47]

Food policies[edit]

To combat cardiovascular disease, New York City has adopted regulations since 2006 to eliminate trans fat from all restaurants.[48][49][50] The restaurant industry and its political allies condemned the trans-fat measure as an assault on liberty by an overzealous "nanny state,"[51][52] but compliance has exceeded 90% among New York City restaurants, and the measure has inspired similar laws in several US cities and the state of California.[53] The Health Department also required chain restaurants to post calorie information to raise consumer awareness of fast food's caloric impact. The measure requires chains with 15 or more outlets to post calorie counts on menus and menu boards. It has prompted two lawsuits by the New York State Restaurant Association. In the first, New York State Restaurant Association v. New York City Board of Health, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that federal law pre-empted New York City's action and overturned it.[54] The NYC Board of Health then repealed and re-enacted the measure.[55] Most chains now post calorie information in their New York City outlets.[56][57] Section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, signed into law 2010, requires menu labeling nationally, for restaurant chains, disclosing on the menu boards, calories, total calories, calories from fat, amounts of fat and saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total and complex carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fiber, and protein.[58]


During Frieden's tenure as Commissioner, the Health Department expanded the collection and use of epidemiological data, launching an annual Community Health Survey[59] and the nation's first community-based Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.[60][61]

Electronic health records[edit]

To improve quality and efficiency of medical care, the agency also launched the nation's largest community-based electronic health records project to improve preventive care for more than one million at-risk New Yorkers.[62]

Director of CDC and Administrator of ATSDR[edit]

On 15 May 2009 the White House and the Department of Health and Human Services named Dr. Frieden the 16th director of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); he assumed his position on 8 June 2009 from the acting head, Richard E. Besser.[63]

On announcing Frieden’s appointment, President Obama said, “America relies on a strong public health system and the work at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is critical to our mission to preserve and protect the health and safety of our citizens”.[64] Frieden had previously worked for the CDC from 1990 to 2002 as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer in New York City and then as part of CDC’s tuberculosis control program.

Bloomberg Philanthropies[edit]

Frieden also served as health advisor to New York City Mayor Bloomberg, supporting the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use.[64] This initiative aims to prevent more than 100 million tobacco-related deaths worldwide[65] by promoting tobacco control in developing countries. By mid-2008, the initiative had funded more than 100 organizations in 36 nations,[23] with a focus on China and India, where more than 40% of the world's smokers live.[66] Bloomberg's effort was joined by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008.[23]



Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Neal L. Cohen
New York City
Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Succeeded by
Thomas A. Farley
Preceded by
Monique Dixon
Diana Reyes
NY1's New Yorker of the Year
Succeeded by
Common Cents


  1. ^
  2. ^
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  6. ^ World Health Organization Tuberculosis Programme (1995). "New York City's Success Story". Stop TB at the Source. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-0-11-951529-9. OCLC 181876135. [page needed]
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  14. ^ Subramani R, Radhakrishna S, Frieden TR, et al. (August 2008). "Rapid decline in prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis after DOTS implementation in a rural area of South India". The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 12 (8): 916–20. PMID 18647451. 
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  21. ^ Altman, Alex (6 June 2008), "When Are Cigarette Taxes Too High?", Time, retrieved 8 July 2009 
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  25. ^ Chang C, Leighton J, Mostashari F, McCord C, Frieden TR (August 2004). "The New York City Smoke-Free Air Act: second-hand smoke as a worker health and safety issue". American Journal of Industrial Medicine 46 (2): 188–95. doi:10.1002/ajim.20030. PMID 15273972. 
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  29. ^ Jonsson, Patrik (17 November 2009). "Federal and state governments look to smokers for more tax revenue: Though they hit poor Americans hardest, stiff taxes on tobacco can reduce healthcare costs by billions". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 8 August 2010. 
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  32. ^ Take Care New York: A Policy for a Healthier New York City (Third Year Progress Report). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. August 2007. p. 2. Retrieved 9 July 2009. 
  33. ^ Frieden TR, Das-Douglas M, Kellerman SE, Henning KJ (December 2005). "Applying public health principles to the HIV epidemic". New England Journal of Medicine 353 (22): 2397–402. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb053133. PMID 16319391. 
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  39. ^ Chan, Sewell (15 February 2007). "A New Condom in Town, This One Named 'NYC'". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  40. ^ "Health department launches the nation's first official city condom" (Press release). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 14 February 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  41. ^
  42. ^ "Health department releases new NYC Condom wrapper" (Press release). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
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  63. ^
  64. ^ a b "President Obama Appoints Dr. Thomas Frieden as CDC Director". The White House. May 15, 2009. 
  65. ^ Frieden TR, Bloomberg MR (May 2007). "How to prevent 100 million deaths from tobacco". Lancet 369 (9574): 1758–61. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60782-X. PMID 17512860. 
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External links[edit]