Tobacco Road refers to the tobacco-producing area of North Carolina and is often used when referring to sports (particularly basketball) played among rival ACC North Carolina universities. The phrase actually originated as the title of a novel set in Georgia, but it naturally migrated to North Carolina because of the state's primacy in tobacco production. Three of the schools (Duke, UNC, and NC State) are part of Research Triangle and are separated by no more than 25 miles (40 km) and Wake Forest lies about 100 miles (160 km) west of the other three. It was formerly much closer to the other three, having originally been located in the town of Wake Forest, North Carolina until 1956. All four are no more than 6 miles (9.7 km) from Interstate 40; the road has been called "Tobacco Road" in national sports media. (However, it must be noted that until the late 1980s -- after tobacco had started to decline in North Carolina due to US federal anti-tobacco actions -- I-40 did not reach Durham, Chapel Hill, or Raleigh. Rather, Tobacco Road would have been US Highway 70.) The proximity of these schools to one another and the membership of each school in the Atlantic Coast Conference have created a natural rivalry among students, fans, & alumni. The oldest of the football rivalries in the state belongs to the UNC-Wake rivalry, while the UNC-Duke rivalry is the oldest basketball rivalry in the state. The rivalries between the four schools also account for the six most frequently played basketball rivalries in the ACC. North Carolina State University's Red and White Song mentions each of the four universities in its lyrics.
The usual universities referred to by the moniker "Tobacco Road" are the following:
These four universities are also known in the state as the "Big Four" and competed in the Dixie Classic tournament from 1949 to 1961, in which the four schools won all 13 tournaments played. And they also played in the Big Four Tournament in Greensboro, North Carolina, from 1971 to 1981. The four schools have had quite a bit of success in college basketball. The four schools have a combined 11 men's national championships (UNC has 5, Duke has 4, NC State has 2, & Wake Forest has 0) and three women's national championships (Duke has 2, UNC has 1, Wake Forest & NC State have 0). The four schools also won 2 NIT Titles (UNC won 1, and Wake won 1). In the men's tournament they have combined to have 10 runner-ups (Duke has 6 & UNC has 4) & 37 Final Fours (UNC has 18, Duke has 15, NC State has 3, & Wake has 1). At least one Tobacco Road team has made the NCAA Tournament every time since 1974. And since the NCAA Tournament started in 1939, all four teams have missed the same tournament only eleven times. The years in which none of the teams were in the tournament was 1940, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1958, 1971, & 1973. All four teams have made the same tournament 4 times (1991, 2003, 2004, 2005). Prior to the 2014 NCAA Tournament, at least one of the teams had made the Sweet 16 since 1979. Aside from the ACC Tournament, the four schools have only played each other in the postseason twice, in which they have never played each other in the NCAA tournament. The only two times came in the NIT Tournament, in which Wake beat NC State in a semifinal game of the 2000 NIT Tournament (which Wake went on to win), and when UNC beat Duke in a semifinal game of the 1971 NIT Tournament (which UNC went on to win). The four schools have combined to win 71 men's conference tournaments with 21 SoCon tournaments & 50 ACC tournaments (Duke won 24, UNC won 25, NC State won 17, & Wake Forest won 5). While in the Southern Conference they won or shared 17 SoCon regular season titles between the 1922-23 & 1952-53 seasons. They have also dominated ACC regular season play, having won or shared 52 regular season titles between them, including all but nine since the 1953-54 season. The four have also won 21 ACC women's tournaments (Duke won 8, UNC won 9, NC State won 4) & won or shared 19 regular season titles. At least of the schools have made all but 10 of the 46 combined CIAW, AIAW, & NCAA tournaments since 1969. The years in which none of the teams made the tournaments were 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, & 1979.
Though the Tobacco Road rivalry predominately relates to basketball, football between these programs is also competitive. As of the 2013 season, the four schools have combined to appear in 77 bowl games (Duke has 10, UNC has 30, NC State has 27, Wake has 10) and a 37-39-1 record in those games (Duke won 3, UNC won 14, NC State won 14, Wake won 6). They have also shared or won outright a combined 32 conference championships (20 ACC & 12 SoCon). Wake Forest and Duke are the only schools out of the four to appear in the ACC Championship Game since the ACC went to a divisional format in 2005. The format divided the four schools in which Wake Forest and NC State were put in the Atlantic Division, while Duke and UNC were put in the Coastal Division.Wake Forest and Duke are "permanent cross-division" rivals, meaning that thay play every year regardless of division. The same can be said about UNC and NC State. The Wake-UNC game, as well as the Duke-NC State game is played for two years then takes a three year break before being playing for another two years. In football the four schools have produced 5 players and no coaches in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. They have also produced 15 players and 6 coaches in the College Football Hall of Fame.
Overall, the four schools have combined to win 65 NCAA Division 1 team national championship in both men's and women's sports(Wake with 8, NC State with 4, Duke has 13, and UNC has 40). They have also won at least 61 NCAA Division 1 individual nation championships in men's and women's sports (UNC has 51, Duke has 5, Wake has 4, NC State has 1). North Carolina's 40 team championships are the ninth most in Division 1 and the most in the ACC.