Total productive maintenance
Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a system of maintaining and improving the integrity of production and quality systems through the machines, equipments, processes and employees that add business value to the organization.
TPM focuses on keeping all equipment in top working condition to avoid breakdowns and delays in the manufacturing process.
Total productive maintenance
One of the main objectives of TPM is to increase the productivity of plant and equipment with a modest investment in maintenance. Total quality management (TQM) and total productive maintenance (TPM) are considered as the key operational activities of the quality management system. In order for TPM to be effective, the full support of the total workforce is required. This should result in accomplishing the goal of TPM: "Enhance the volume of the production, employee morale and job satisfaction."
Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance
Following are the steps involved by the implementation of TPM in an organization: Initial evaluation of TPM level, Introductory Education and Propaganda (IEP) for TPM, formation of TPM committee, development of master plan for TPM implementation, stage by stage training to the employees and stakeholders on all eight pillars of TPM, implementation preparation process, establishing the TPM policies and goals and development of a road map for TPM implementation.
According to Nicholas, the steering committee should consist of production managers, maintenance managers, and engineering managers. The committee should formulate TPM policies and strategies and give advice. This committee should be led by a top-level executive. Also a TPM program team must rise, this program team has oversight and coordination of implementation activities. As well, it's lacking some crucial activities, like starting with partial implementation. Choose the first target area as a pilot area, this area will demonstrate the TPM concepts. Lessons learned from early target areas/the pilot area can be applied further in the implementation process.
Another factor that is crucial for the success of TPM, is the support of top management: "Lack of top management commitment, lack of middle management support and employee resistance to change, as well for the status-conscious and hierarchy-bound middle level executives lacking initiatives" are the main barriers against succeeding.
Objectives of Total productive maintenance
One of the main objectives of TPM is to increase the productivity of plant and equipment with a modest investment in maintenance. By investing in, for example, equipment maintenance, equipment losses can be prevented. There are six preventable losses:
- Breakdown losses caused by the equipment
- Set-up and adjustment losses
- Minor stoppage losses
- Speed losses
- Quality defect and rework losses
- Yield losses
Those losses could use further explanation. The first two losses affect the availability of a piece of equipment, the third and fourth losses affect equipment efficiency, and the fifth loss results in reduced quality from output.
Measuring effectiveness of Total Productive maintenance
A tool for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of TPM can be found in "Overall Equipment Effectiveness" (OEE). Measuring the effectiveness of TPM is a crucial activity in TPM, but also a very time consuming and costly process. The mathematical formula is as follows:
OEE=Availability*Performance Rate*Total Yield Rate
The possible benefits -or costs- of TPM are tested by a statistical analyses. OEE is used as a parameter of TPM effectiveness:
H0: There is no significant difference in the percentage of defectives produced before and after the implementation of TPM (TPM implementation has no positive effect).
Ha: There is a significant difference in the percentage of defectives produced before and after the implementation of TPM (TPM implementation has positive effect).
This test resulted in a rejection of the null hypothesis. So, it may be concluded TPM brings positive changes to the process development. Reliable proof, could help convince people of the benefits TPM brings, and on what scale these benefits will operate. It could also be used as an argument criticasters can't disprove. Before being able to use TPM, additional theory should be consulted.
Total quality management and total productive maintenance are often used interchangeably. However, TQM and TPM share a lot of similarities, but are considered as two different approaches in the official literature. TQM attempts to increase the quality of goods, services and concomitant customer satisfaction by raising awareness of quality concerns across the organization.
TQM is based on five cornerstones: The product, the process that allows the product to be produced, the organization that provides the proper environment needed for the process to work, the leadership that guides the organization, and commitment to excellence throughout the organization.
In other words, TQM focuses on the quality of the product, while TPM focuses on the equipment used to produce the products. By preventing equipment break-down, improving the quality of the equipment and by standardizing the equipment (results in less variance, so better quality), the quality of the products increases. TQM and TPM can both result in an increase of quality. However, the way of going there is different. TPM can be seen as a way to help achieving the goal of TQM.
- Gubata, Joyce (2014). "Just-in-time Manufacturing". Research starters Business.
- Prabhuswamy, M; Nagesh, P; Ravikumar, K (February 2013). "Statistical Analysis and Reliability Estimation of Total Productive Maintenance". IUP Journal of Operations Management (Rochester, NY: Social Science Electronic Publishing) XII (1): 7–20.
- Nicholas, John (1998). Competitive manufacturing management. Europe: McGraw-Hill.
- Wienclaw, R (2008). Operations & Business Process Management.
- Creech, Bill (1994). Five Pillars of TQM: How to Make Total Quality Management Work for You. E P Dutton.