Total productive maintenance
Total productive maintenance
One of the main objectives of TPM is to increase the productivity of plant and equipment with a modest investment in maintenance (Prabhuswamy, Nagesh & Himanshu Bhatia,Prarthana Sharma). Total Quality management (TQM) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) are considered as the key operational activities of the quality management system. In order for TPM to be effective, the full support of the total workforce is required. This should result in accomplishing the goal of TPM: "Enhance the volume of the production, employee morale and job satisfaction" (Prabhuswamy, et al., 2013).
Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance
Following are the steps involved by the implementation of TPM in an organization: Initial evaluation of TPM level, Introductory Education and Propaganda (IEP) for TPM, formation of TPM committee, development of master plan for TPM implementation, stage by stage training to the employees and stakeholders on all eight pillars of TPM, implementation preparation process, establishing the TPM policies and goals and development of a road map for TPM implementation (Prabhuswamy, et al., 2013).
According to Nicholas, the steering committee should consist of production managers, maintenance managers, and engineering managers. The committee should formulate TPM policies and strategies and give advice. This committee should be leaded by a top-level executive. Also a TPM program team must rise, this program team has oversight and coordination of implementation activities. As well, it's lacking some crucial activities, like starting with partial implementation. Choose the first target area as a pilot area, this area will demonstrate the TPM concepts (Nicholas, 1998). Lessons learned from early target areas/the pilot area can be applied further in the implementation process.
Another factor, that is crucial for the succeeding of TPM, is the support of top management: "Lack of top management commitment, lack of middle management support and employee resistance to change, as well for the status-conscious and hierarchy-bound middle level executives lacking inititatives" are the main barriers against succeeding (Prabhuswamy et al., 2013).
Objectives of Total productive maintenance
One of the main objectives of TPM is to increase the productivity of plant and equipment with a modest investment in maintenance (Prabhuswamy et al., 2013). By investing in -for example- equipment maintenance, equipment losses can be prevented. Prabhuswamy et al., 2013 defines the following six losses (similar to the "six big losses” stated by Nicholas):
1. Breakdown losses caused by the equipment
2. Setup and adjustment losses
3. Minor stoppage losses.
4. Speed losses
5. Quality defect and rework losses.
6. Yield losses. Those loses could use further explanation. The first two loses affect the availability of a piece of equipment, the third and forth loses affects equipment efficiency and the fifth lose result in reduced quality from output(Nicholas, 1998).
Measuring effectiveness of Total Productive maintenance
A tool for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of TPM can be found in "Overall Equipment Effectiveness" (OEE). Measuring the effectiveness of TPM is a crucial activity if TPM, but also a very time consuming and costly process. The mathematical formula is as follows:
OEE=Availability*Performance Rate*Total Yield Rate
The possible benefits -or costs- of TPM are tested by a statistical analyses. OEE is used as a parameter of TPM effectiveness:
H0: There is no significant difference in the percentage of defectives produced before and after the implementation of TPM (TPM implementation has no positive effect).
Ha: There is a significant difference in the percentage of defectives produced before and after the implementation of TPM (TPM implementation has positive effect).
This test resulted in a rejection of the null hypothesis. So, it may be concluded TPM brings positive changes to the process development (Prabhuswamy et al., 2013). Reliable proof, could help convince people of the benefits TPM brings, and on what scale these benefits will operate. It could also be used as an argument criticasters cant disprove. Before being able to use TPM, additional theory should be consulted.
Definition of Total Productive Maintenance
"Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a system of maintaining and improving the integrity of production and quality systems through the machines, equipments, processes and employees that add business value to the organization (Prabhuswamy, Nagesh & Ravikumar, 2013)."
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) focuses on keeping all equipment in top condition to avoid breakdowns and delays in the manufacturing process(Gubata, 2008).
Total quality management and total productive maintenance are often used interchangeably. However, TQM and TPM share a lot of similarities, but are considered as two different approaches in the official literature. TQM attempts to increase the quality of goods, services and concomitant customer satisfaction by raising awareness of quality concerns across the organization(Wienclaw, 2008). Furthermore TQM is based on 5 cornerstones: The product, the process that allows the product to be produced, the organization that provides the proper environment needed for the process to work, the leadership that guides the organization, and commitment to excellence throughout the organization(Creech, 1994). In other words, TQM focuses on the quality of the product. While TPM focuses on the equipment used, to produce the products. By preventing equipment to break down, improving the quality of the equipment and by standardizing the equipment (results in less variety, so better quality), the quality of the products increases. TQM and TPM can both result in an increase of quality. However, the way of going there is different. TPM can be seen as a way to help achieving the goal of TQM.
Prabhuswamy, M.S., Nagesh, P., Ravikumar, K.P., 2013. Statistical Analysis and Reliability Estimation of Total Productive Maintenance. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 12 Issue 1, P7-20, 14p.
Nicholas, J.M. (1998). Competitive manufacturing management. McGraw-Hill Education – Europe
Creech, B. (1994). The five pillars of TQM: How to make total quality management work for you.
Wienclaw, R.A.(2008). Operations & Business Process Management. Operations & Business Process Management,11p
Gubata, J. (2008). Just-in-time Manufacturing. Research starters Business, 15p