Trailer Connector/ISO

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This is part of the subject Trailer Connector where common information can be seen.

The connectors that are reported here are described in the ISO standard. If there is some significant deviations from the ISO standard that can cause problems it is also noted here.

Trailer connectors between the trailer and passenger car, light truck or heavy trucks with 12V systems[edit]

In Europe, both 7-pin (ISO 1724) and 13-pin (ISO 11446) are common. The reason that the 13-pin exists is that the 7-pin is not able to provide all expected services.

These connectors are designed for 12V, but exceptions may exist where both 6V and 24V exists.

Vehicles and trailers with 6V can use the 7-pin or 5-pin connector, but these are rare today. Note that the heavy trucks that may have 12V systems are usually older (Vintage vehicles) or on non-European markets.[1]

The color coding is a recommendation and may be different on your particular vehicle.

13-pin trailer connector (ISO 11446)[edit]

13-pin trailer connector of Jaeger type

Physical design of the standard ISO 11446[2][3] but also called Jaeger-connector from the company that developed it.

# DIN Signal Color Rec. cross-section Notes
mm² AWG
1 L Left Turn Signal Yellow 1.5 15
2 Rear fog lamps Blue 1.5 15
3 31 Ground (-) for pin 1 - 8 White 2.5 13 [ISO11446 1]
4 R Right Turn Signal Green 1.5 15
5 58R Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps and registration plate lamp right side Brown 1.5 15 [ISO11446 2]
6 54 Stop lamps Red 1.5 15
7 58L Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps and registration plate lamp left side Black 1.5 15 [ISO11446 2]
8 Reversing lamps, control current to block surge brakes when reversing. Pink 1.5 15
9 30 +12V permanent Orange 2.5 13
10 15 +12V via ignition lock Grey 2.5 13
11 31 Ground (-) for pin 10 Black/White 2.5 13 [ISO11446 1]
12 Trailer present identification by connecting this pin to pin 3 (ground) on trailer side. Light Grey 1.5 15 [ISO11446 3]
13 31 Ground (-) for pin 9 Red/White 2.5 13 [ISO11446 1]

The following supplementary information exists for the connector:

  1. ^ a b c Pin 3, 11 and 13 must not be joined in the trailer[4] to avoid interaction between circuit types and over current if one ground pin isn't working.
  2. ^ a b Pin 5 and 7 must not be joined in the trailer[4] to avoid problems in vehicles with separate circuits for left and right side.
  3. ^ Pin 12 was assigned the trailer detection functionality in ISO 11446:2012. This pin was unassigned in earlier releases and there is a possibility that it has a different function in older vehicles.

Other variants of this connector exists but they are rare.[5] One is used in 24V applications while the other is for ADR use. The difference is how they are mechanically keyed. These connectors are not very common.

7-pin trailer connector for ABS/EBS (ISO 7638-2)[edit]

12 Volt 7-pin trailer connector ISO 7638-2 for ABS and EBS (Towing vehicle side)

Physical design according to standard ISO 7638-2.[4][6][7]

This connector is intended to be used for 12V ABS and EBS on heavy duty trailers.

Identified by key tab on outer ring between pin 3 and 4.

# DIN Signal Color Rec. cross-section Notes
mm² AWG
1 30 +12V permanent for control valves Red 4 11
2 15 +12V via ignition lock for electronics Black 1.5 15
3 31 Ground for electronics(Pin 2) Yellow 1.5 15
4 31 Ground for control valves (Pin 1) Brown 4 11
5 ABS Fault indication (Active low, i.e. when the voltage is below +5V) White 1.5 15 [ISO7638-1 1]
6 CAN H, For EBS and ABS Green/White 1.5 15 [ISO7638-2 1] [ISO7638-2 2]
7 CAN L, For EBS and ABS Brown/White 1.5 15 [ISO7638-2 1] [ISO7638-2 2]

The following supplementary information exists for the connector:

  1. ^ a b CAN bus communication according to ISO 11992.
  2. ^ a b The CAN bus is not necessary for the ABS to work which means that there are also a 5-pin variant of this connector where the CAN bus pins are excluded.

7-pin trailer connector Type 12N (ISO 1724)[edit]

7-pin ISO 1724 trailer connector type 12N (Towing vehicle side)

Physical design according to standard ISO 1724.[4][8]

The 7-pin connector uses on newer trailers all 7 pins according to the ISO standard.[9][10]

On older trailers there's sometimes a 5-wire setup using a 7-pin connector. In these cases exclude connection for right tail light (58R) and rear fog light (54G) and connect the tail lights only to pin for left tail light (58L).[11]

Joining the pins for right and left tail lights (58R and 58L) can cause problems on German cars where it is possible to activate Standing Lamps on only one side of the vehicle.[12]

# DIN Signal Color Rec. cross-section Notes
mm² AWG
1 L Left Turn Signal Yellow 1.5 15
2 54G +12V from battery or Rear fog lamps Blue 1.5 15
3 31 Ground connected to chassis White or Grey 2.5 13
4 R Right Turn Signal Green 1.5 15
5 58R Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps and registration plate lamp right side Brown 1.5 15
6 54 Stop lamps Red 1.5 15
7 58L Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps and registration plate lamp left side Black 1.5 15

Pin 2 (54G)[edit]

According to [DIN 72552] pin 54G was initially intended for electrical control of brakes on trailers.[13]

Later pin 2 (54G) has been used for a variety of other stuff different from the original intent. A few examples:

This is the reason why you in Europe or other region using this connector sometimes can see some trailers on the road with the rear fog lights on. (Vehicle wired for +12V, permanent or via ignition and trailer wired for fog lamps)

Special case for Australia[edit]

Australia uses basically the same wiring with the exception for pin 5 and pin 2. The problematic part here is that pin 5 is used for trailer brake which means that if you for some reason connect an Australian trailer to a towing vehicle with ISO wiring you will get into trouble with the trailer brakes being applied as soon as you turn on the lights.[14]

Further reading at Trailer Connector/Australia.

7-pin trailer connector Type 12S (ISO 3732)[edit]

7-pin ISO 3732 trailer connector type 12S (Towing vehicle side)

Physical design according to standard ISO 3732.[4][15]

Signals in this connector (if following the standard) are not generally legally required (local regulations may still apply), which means that it is not mandatory to connect it if it is present.

This connector is basically the same as the 12N (ISO 1724) connector, but the center pin (pin 7) has changed gender to make the plug and outlet unique. Socket is replaced with pin in the plug, pin is replaced with socket in outlet.

The purpose of this connector is to supplement the 12N (ISO 1724) connector for power supply of consumers common in caravans (Travel trailers).[16] This is used in Great Britain but may also be used in other areas of Europe.

There are two main variants of the wiring with a switchover date 1999. The difference is that an additional connection for ground and that battery charging in the trailer is shared with other consumers. This means that if a pre-1999 camper trailer with a battery is connected to a post 1999 vehicle there's a risk that the battery charging won't work.

The combination of 12N+12S was replaced in 2008 by the 13-pin ISO 11446 connector.

# DIN British ISO 3732 Color Rec. cross-section Notes
-1999 1999-2008 mm² AWG
1 Reversing lamps Reversing lamps Yellow 1.5 15
2 (15) Battery charging Spare Blue 2.5 13 [ISO3732 1]
3 31 Common ground Common ground except for pin 6 White or Grey 2.5 13
4 30 Feed for internal 12V equipment except refrigerator +12V permanent Green 2.5 13
5 Spare Spare Brown 1.5 15
6 15 Feed for refrigerator +12V via ignition lock Red 2.5 13
7 Spare ground for pin 6 Black 2.5 13

The following supplementary information exists for the connector:

  1. ^ Attention shall be paid to the fact that this pin may not be powered if the towing vehicle is manufactured after 1999 and if the trailer has a battery that is charged by the towing vehicle. The result may be that the battery wouldn't be charged as expected.

5-pin connector (ISO 1724)[edit]

Physical design according to standard ISO 1724.[4][8]

The 5-pin has a design and pin layout that is identical to the 7-pin ISO 1724 connector with the exception for the lack of pin 1 (L) and pin 4 (R). This connector is sometimes present on vintage vehicles and the actual wiring may be completely different from what the standard states which means that measuring before connecting is a good idea.

Whenever there is a need to change the plug or outlet it can be replaced with a 7-pin.

Trailer connector between heavy duty trailer and heavy duty truck[edit]

Connectors on a European heavy duty trailer

The designated voltage for these connectors is 24 volt.

15-pin trailer connector (ISO 12098)[edit]

24 Volt 15-pin trailer connector ISO 12098 (Towing vehicle side)

Physical design according to standard ISO 12098.[4][17]

This connector is present on newer heavy duty commercial trucks and trailers following the ISO standard and is intended to replace the combination of connectors according to standards ISO 1185 and ISO 3731. The 15-pin connector is not designed to replace the ISO 7638 connector.[18]

# DIN Signal Color Rec. cross-section Notes
mm² AWG
1 L Left Turn Signal Yellow 1.5 15
2 R Right Turn Signal Green 1.5 15
3 Rear fog lamps Blue 1.5 15
4 31 Ground (-) for pin 1 - 3 and 5 - 12 White 2.5 13
5 58L Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps, identification lamps and registration plate lamp left side Black 1.5 15 [ISO12098 1] [ISO12098 2]
6 58R Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps, identification lamps and registration plate lamp right side Brown 1.5 15 [ISO12098 1] [ISO12098 2]
7 54 Stop lamps Red 1.5 15
8 Reversing lamps Pink 1.5 15
9 30 +24V permanent Orange 2.5 13
10 Brake wear indicator[19] Grey 1.5 15
11 Indication of applied parking brake due to loss of air pressure Black/White 1.5 15
12 Lift Axle Blue/White 1.5 15
13 31 ground (-) for pin 14 and 15 Red/White 2.5 13
14 CAN H, Not for EBS or ABS Green/White 1.5 15 [ISO12098 3]
15 CAN L, Not for EBS or ABS Brown/White 1.5 15 [ISO12098 3]

The following supplementary information exists for the connector:

  1. ^ a b Pin 5 and 6 must not be joined in the trailer[4] to avoid problems in vehicles with separate circuits for left and right side.
  2. ^ a b Identification lamps shall be wired to either pin 5 or 6, not both.
  3. ^ a b EBS and ABS shall be connected through the ISO 7638 connector.

Notice: There was a predecessor to this connector with 13 pins that on a cursory glance is identical to the 15 pin connector but has a different arrangement of the pins.[20] It was not very common but may exist on some vehicles and can result in an unpleasant surprise.

7-pin trailer connector for ABS/EBS (ISO 7638-1)[edit]

12 Volt 7-pin trailer connector ISO 7638 for ABS and EBS (Towing vehicle side)

Physical design according to standard ISO 7638-1.[4][7][21]

This connector is intended for 24V ABS and EBS on heavy duty trailers.

Identified by key tab on outer ring by pin 5.

# DIN Signal Color Rec. cross-section Notes
mm² AWG
1 30 +24V permanent for control valves Red 4 11
2 15 +24V via ignition lock for electronics Black 1.5 15
3 31 Ground for electronics(Pin 2) Yellow 1.5 15
4 31 Ground for control valves (Pin 1) Brown 4 11
5 ABS Fault indication White 1.5 15 [ISO7638-1 1]
6 CAN H, For EBS and ABS Green/White 1.5 15 [ISO7638-1 2] [ISO7638-1 3]
7 CAN L, For EBS and ABS Brown/White 1.5 15 [ISO7638-1 2] [ISO7638-1 3]

The following supplementary information exists for the connector:

  1. ^ a b Active low, i.e. when the voltage is below +5V.
  2. ^ a b CAN bus communication according to ISO 11992.
  3. ^ a b The CAN bus is not necessary for the ABS to work which means that there are also a 5-pin variant of this connector where the CAN bus pins are excluded.

7-pin trailer connector 24N (ISO 1185)[edit]

24 Volt 7-pin trailer connector ISO 1185 (Towing vehicle side)

Physical design according to standard ISO 1185.[4][22]

This connector is common on heavy duty commercial trucks and trailers but is replaced by the ISO 12098 connector on newer vehicles.

# DIN Signal Color Rec. cross-section Notes
mm² AWG
1 31 Ground (-) White 2.5 13
2 58L Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps, identification lamps and registration plate lamp left side Black 1.5 15 [ISO1185 1] [ISO1185 2]
3 L Left Turn Signal Yellow 1.5 15
4 54 Stop lamps Red 1.5 15
5 R Right Turn Signal Green 1.5 15
6 58R Tail lamps, clearance lamps/outline marker lamps, identification lamps and registration plate lamp right side Brown 1.5 15 [ISO1185 1] [ISO1185 2]
7 Trailer brake control Blue 1.5 15

The following supplementary information exists for the connector:

  1. ^ a b Pin 2 and 6 must not be joined in the trailer[4] to avoid problems in vehicles with separate circuits for left and right side.
  2. ^ a b Identification lamps shall be wired to either pin 2 or 6, not both.

The physical design is also used by SAE J560 with basically the same configuration. The difference is that SAE J560 uses 12V (larger wire cross-section and higher amp rating on fuses). Pin 7 may also have a different behavior on SAE J560.[23][24][25]

7-pin trailer connector 24S (ISO 3731)[edit]

24 Volt 7-pin trailer connector ISO 3731 (Towing vehicle side)

Physical design according to standard ISO 3731.[4][26][27]

This connector is common but on newer vehicles it is replaced by the connectors according to ISO 12098 and ISO 7638.

# DIN Signal Color Rec. cross-section Notes
mm² AWG
1 31 Ground (-) White 2.5 13
2 ABS Fault indication Black 1.5 15
3 Reversing lamps Yellow 1.5 15
4 30 +24V permanent Red 2.5 13
5 Control via Ground Green 1.5 15
6 15 +24V via ignition lock Brown 2.5 13
7 Rear fog lamps Blue 1.5 15

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ARTSA Voltage Troubles". 
  2. ^ "ISO 11446-1:2012". 
  3. ^ "ISO 11446-2:2012". 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "HELLA ELECTRICAL PLUG-TYPE CONNECTIONS". 
  5. ^ "13-pin 24V Trailer Connectors similar to ISO 11446". 
  6. ^ "ISO 7638-2:2003". 
  7. ^ a b "ABS Troubleshooting for Trucks, Trailers, and Buses". 
  8. ^ a b "ISO 1724:2003". 
  9. ^ "Wiring Guides". 
  10. ^ "7 pin 12N wiring diagram". 
  11. ^ "Bosch - koppling 7-polig med 5- och 7-ledarkabel". 
  12. ^ "Light switch". Mercedes Owner's manual. p. 106. 
  13. ^ Glenning, Christer (1976). Allt om bilen. Det Bästa (Readers Digest, Sweden). p. 130. ISBN 9789170300189. 
  14. ^ "NARVA Wiring Diagrams". 
  15. ^ "ISO 3732:2003". 
  16. ^ "The British Caravanners Club: Towing Wiring for Caravans and Trailers". 
  17. ^ "ISO 12098:2004". 
  18. ^ "Your Guide to ABS and EBS". 
  19. ^ "Just the Facts: Brake Pad Wear Sensors". 
  20. ^ "13-pin 24V Trailer Connectors similar to ISO 12098". 
  21. ^ "ISO 7638-1:2003". 
  22. ^ "ISO 1185:2003". 
  23. ^ "SAE J560: Primary and Auxiliary Seven Conductor Electrical Connector for Truck-Trailer Jumper Cable.". 
  24. ^ "Transatlantic connection – A comparison of different standards for trailer connectors". 
  25. ^ "Truck Lite Trailer Wiring". 
  26. ^ "ISO 3731:2003". 
  27. ^ "European Truck Trailer suzie pin-out connections". 

Symbol Guide[edit]

Example Description
TrailerConnectorSocket.svg
Socket
TrailerConnectorPin.svg
Pin