Type 91 Surface-to-air missile

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Type 91
Type 91 surface to air missile.jpg
A mock-up display of the Type 91 with a dummy missile
Type Manportable surface-to-air missile
Place of origin Japan Japan
Service history
In service 1994–Present
Used by Japan
Production history
Designer Toshiba
Designed 1979-1990
Manufacturer Toshiba
Unit cost $ 145,000 (As of 2006)[1]
Produced 1991–1993 (Original)
2007–Present (Type 91 Kai)
Variants See Variants
Specifications (Type 91 Kin-SAM)
Weight 11.5 kg
Length 1.43 m
Diameter 80 mm
Crew 1

Engine Solid Rocket Motor
Mach 1.9[1]
Guidance
system
Infrared homing[2]
Launch
platform
Kawasaki OH-1
Toshiba Type 93 Surface-to-air missile

The Type 91 surface-to-air missile (91式携帯地対空誘導弾 91-shiki Keitai Chitaikū Yūdōdan?) is a Japanese man-portable surface-to-air missile system. Its appearance is similar to the US-made FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missile.[3][4] It was created in order to replace its stock of American-made Stinger MANPADS, since the Type 91 has a better guidance system, which consist of both light and infrared system options.[5] The Stinger, on the other hand, uses a passive infrared homing guidance system.[6]

In the ranks of the JSDF, the Type 91 is colloquially known as Hand Arrow.[7] The Type 91 is sometimes mistaken as a Japanese-made version of the Stinger.[8] The Type 91 is exclusively used by the JSDF and has not been exported overseas due to their constitutional laws.

The Type 91 is officially treated as a 4th-generation MANPAD system.[9]

History[edit]

JASDF soldiers aiming a Type 91 Kai MANPAD at a mock airborne target in the Pacific Alaskan Range Complex as part of Red Flag – Alaska.

Development work on an advanced infra-red seeker began in 1979 at the Technical Research and Development Institute (TRDI) after Toshiba and Kawasaki Heavy Industries submitted their projects with the former being selected.[10] In 1982, the Japan Self-Defense Forces began looking for a replacement for the FIM-92 Stinger which was then in service via Foreign Military Sales.[1][2][11] Development of the missile was then known as Keiko or SAM-X was deferred until 1987. Toshiba took over the project in 1988 and began engineering development. The development was completed in 1990, and low rate production was started in 1991.[12] The missile was initially designated the Type 91 Kin-SAM[13] and as the SAM-2.[14][15] It was first deployed in 1994.[16]

The adoption of the Type 91 allowed the JSDF to gradually retire the Stingers, with the last stocks officially removed from JGSDF service in 2009.[6] JGSDF Apaches still retain the Stinger as anti-aircraft missiles.[6]

In 2007, the Type 91 Kai was delivered by Toshiba after being produced to replace the original Type 91 with several improvements including its motor and capability to be fired in the dark.[10]

Design[edit]

The Type 91 on top and the Stinger below. These two MANPADs look exactly the same at first glance.

The missile is similar to the Stinger missile it replaced with two rocket solid motors, an initial booster motor and a sustainer.[11] The imaging seeker uses 3rd generation-made infrared and ultraviolet guidance systems.[16] On launch, the missile records the target's image profile and is able to ignore defensive countermeasures such as flares.[1][17] The Type 91's missile travels at a Mach speed of 1.9.[18]

The Type 91 comes with the rocket launcher, an external battery pack, IFF system, missiles and other training equipment.[19] The Type 91 weights at 11.5 kilograms, which is lighter than the Stinger as it has a weight of 15.2 kilograms.[6][20]

Improvements of the Type 91 Kai included missile with image-infra-red seeker, smokeless motor and the capability to have faster shooting and target acquisition and was also improved for the ability to be used at night.[10]

Users[edit]

 Japan

Variants[edit]

An improved version of the Type 91, called the Type 91 Kai, was delivered to replaced the original. A vehicle based variant, the Type 93 Surface-to-air missile launcher, has also been developed. This is also made by Toshiba Heavy Industries.[13] The system is mounted on Toyota-made Kōkidōshas.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "91式携行地対空誘導弾" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  2. ^ a b "高射群・基地防空装備" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  3. ^ "91式携帯地対空誘導弾" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2012-02-10. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  4. ^ "Exhibision (sic) of Equipments". Archived from the original on 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  5. ^ "91式携帯地対空誘導弾" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  6. ^ a b c d "ナ暖窶佚鯛€冢窶佚寂€ケテウ窶廼窶慊ア窶册 ニ湛ニ弾ニ達ニ停€愴狸ツー" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  7. ^ "91式携帯地対空誘導弾" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2012-02-20. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  8. ^ "その他の展示たち" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  9. ^ Christof Kögler. "Technical aspects and components of MANPADS by Christof Kögler". p. Page 32. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  10. ^ a b c "91式携行地対空誘導弾(SAM-2,携行SAM)" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  11. ^ a b "91式 携帯地対空誘導弾" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  12. ^ "Controlling the transfer of Man-Portable Air Defence Systems: A guide to best practice". Archived from no footnotes.pdf the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  13. ^ a b Andreas Parsch (April 2001). "Japanese Military Aircraft Designations (after 1945)". Archived from the original on 2013-05-02. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  14. ^ "Description of Missiles". Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  15. ^ "自衛隊エセ大辞典 (武器・備品編)" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  16. ^ a b "MANPADS". Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  17. ^ a b "陸上自衛隊装備 91式携帯地対空誘導弾" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  18. ^ a b "China vs. Japan Matchup: Air Defense". Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  19. ^ "JGSDF Type 91 Northeastern Army Information Page" (in Japanese). Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces. Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  20. ^ "91式携帯地対空誘導弾 略称:携SAM 愛称:ハンドアロー" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  21. ^ "八雲の展示物" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2001-06-09. Retrieved 2010-07-12. 

External links[edit]