Type 92 Heavy Armoured Car

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Type 92 Tankette
1941 Type92 Combat Cars near Nanking.jpg
Place of origin  Empire of Japan
Production history
Designed 1931
Produced 1932–1939
Number built 167
Specifications
Weight 3.5 tons
Length 3.95 m (13 ft 0 in)
Width 1.63 m (5 ft 4 in)
Height 1.86 m (6 ft 1 in)
Crew 3

Armor 6–12 mm
Main
armament
13 mm Type 92 heavy machine gun
Secondary
armament
1 × 7.7 mm Type 97 light machine gun
Engine Franklin/Ishikawajima Sumida C6 air-cooled inline 6-cylinder gasoline
45 hp (34 kW)
Suspension Bell crank
Operational
range
200 km (120 mi)
Speed 40 km/h (25 mph)

The Type 92 Heavy Armoured Car (九二式重装甲車 Kyū-ni-shiki Jyū-sōkōsha?) was the Empire of Japan's first indigenous tankette. Designed for use by the cavalry of the Imperial Japanese Army by Ishikawajima Motorcar Manufacturing Company (currently Isuzu Motors), the Type 92 was designed for scouting and infantry support. Although actually a light tank, it was called sōkōsha (armored car) in Japanese due to political sectionalism within the Japanese Army (tanks were controlled by the infantry, whereas the new weapon was intended for the cavalry). Exactly the same device was used in America with the M1 Combat Car.

Developmental history[edit]

After World War I, many European countries attempted to mechanize their cavalry. In parallel, Japanese cavalry also experimented with a variety of armored cars with limited success. These wheeled armored cars were not suitable for most operations in Manchuria, due to the poor road conditions and severe winter climate. Japan's army (like the US, French, British and Russian armies) tried various methods to integrate modern armor into their traditional horse cavalry formations.[1]

From the early 1920s, the Imperial Japanese Army Cavalry School based in Chiba prefecture tested a variety of European light tanks, including six Carden Loyd tankettes and several Renault FTs, and a decision was reached in 1929 to proceed with the domestic development of a new vehicle, based largely on the Carden Loyd design and intended to address the deficiencies of wheeled armored cars.[2]

The development of the Type 92 began with a hybrid amphibious car; this had both tracks and wheels and was able to drive in forward and reverse, both in the water and on land. The experiment was not entirely successful, and the Japanese cavalry was not impressed with the performance. After this, the amphibious car concept was abandoned, and the design was changed to a tracked vehicle for land use only.

Production was initiated by Ishikawajima Motorcar Manufacturing Company in 1932. Production was plagued by technical problems and in total only 167 units were built between 1932 and 1939. After some initial problems with the running gear, the Type 92 proved well suited for the rough terrain and poor roads of Manchuria and China, and was able to attain a speed of 40 km/h (25 mph). Some vehicles were equipped with two searchlights for night operations and Type 94 Mk 4 Otsu radios (this 1934 model had a range of 0.6 mile and weighed 88 lb; it used a 23 ft (7.0 m) long antenna of "reverse L" shape).

The Type 92 was eventually replaced by the Type 94 Te Ke during the Second Sino-Japanese War, although both British and American sources often confused the two models.[3]

Type 92 heavy armoured car

Armor and armament[edit]

The Type 92 used riveted and welded armor with a maximum thickness from 6 mm (in the hull) to 12 mm (in the turret). The thin armor enabled the weight to be kept to three tons; however, the armor was not thick enough to withstand even normal rifle fire.[4] Although its armor was thinner and its weaponry much lighter than its European contemporaries, the Type 92 was only able to reach a speed of 40 km/h.

In terms of armament, for the most part, the main weapons were twin machine guns, one in the turret, and one in the hull. Later, the primary weapon was a hull-mounted, manually aimed 13 mm Type 92 heavy machine gun, license-built from Hotchkiss. The weapon had limited traverse, but included a pivoting eyepiece on the gunsight optics and a high-angle mount, allowing anti-aircraft use. Secondary armament was a 6.5 mm Type 91 machine gun, replaced later by the 7.7 mm Type 97 light machine gun mounted in the manually traversed turret.[3] This weaponry was comparable to that on the German Panzer I.[citation needed] Initially, the vehicles were armed with identical 6.5 mm or 7.7 mm machine guns on both the turret and the hull.

After production ended, efforts were made to improve the armament to keep the vehicle relevant on the battlefield. The Type 98 20 mm Machine Cannon was successfully mounted on the hull of a number of the vehicles, in place of the 13.2 mm machine gun. Attempts were also made to mount a 37 mm tank gun on the vehicle with lesser success. In addition, an external anti-aircraft mount was stowed in the vehicle, which could be attached to the outer rear facing of the turret, allowing an additional Type 91 or Type 97 tank machine gun to be mounted. The engine hatches could be opened and locked together to form a seat for the gunner using the externally mounted machine gun.

Variants[edit]

There were three major production variants of the Type 92. The early wheeled prototype and the experimental amphibious tank (Type 92 A-I-Go) with a watertight hull, floats and propellers (only 2 built) eventually resulted in the early production model with two bogies on each side, each with two small rubber-lined road wheels. However, this model was superseded in production by a late production model with improved suspension, when combat experience showed that the early Type 92 tended to throw its tracks in high speed turns.[3]

A Type 92 first production "early" model. Initial armament was two light 6.6 mm type 91, with one mounted in the hull. This was used by the Cavalry division which took part in the attack of Harbin, 1932.

The re-armed early or "mid" production type 92 included the 13.2mm heavy Mg in the hull. The first Special Tank Company of the 8th Division used it in the battle of Rehe, March 1933. The mid-production re-armed model allowed for some anti-air capability, increasing the utility of the vehicle.

The "late" type 92 was deployed in Manchuria, April 1942. Modifications included a new drive train, new redesigned portholes and vision slits with different swing, a new light turret machine gun, the 7.7mm type 96.

Combat use[edit]

The Type 92 tankette was deployed primarily with the Kwantung Army in Manchuria and with the Chosen Army in Korea.

Notable actions in which the Type 92 participated included the Battle of Harbin with the 1st Cavalry Brigade and the Battle of Rehe with the 1st Special Tank Company of the 8th Division.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Taki's Imperial Japanese Army
  2. ^ Foss. Tanks: The 500. pp. 220
  3. ^ a b c Foss. The Great Book of Tanks. p. 106
  4. ^ Report on Type 92 from September 1945 Intelligence Bulletin

References[edit]

  • Foss, Christopher (2003). Great Book of Tanks: The World's Most Important Tanks from World War I to the Present Day. Zenith Press. ISBN 0-7603-1475-6. 
  • Foss, Christopher (2003). Tanks: The 500. Crestline. ISBN 0-7603-1500-0. 
  • Zaloga, Steven J. (2007). Japanese Tanks 1939–45. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-091-8. 

External links[edit]