Westeremden yew-stick

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The Westeremden yew-stick is a yew-wood stick found in Westeremden B in the Groningen province of the Netherlands in 1917 that bears an Old Frisian Futhorc inscription.

ᛁᚹᛁᚩLong-branch Kaun2.pngRune-Stan.pngᛞᚢᚿᚩᛚᛖ:

Runes with unfamiliar shapes or uncertain values are:

  • Rune-Stan2.png, a Spiegelrune of , similar to a variant of stan, transliterated as B below
  • Rune-Stan.png, a Spiegelrune of , similar to a variant of stan, transliterated as P below
  • Long-branch Kaun2.png, like Younger Futhark kaun, transliterated as K below
  • (like Anglo-Saxon cen, occurring three times); it apparently represents a vowel, likely æ, replacing absent æsc
  • (like Younger Futhark ar), transliterated as A below
  • , a "bookhand-s", transliterated as S below
  • , like a short-twig n, probably for n

with these decisions, the transliteration may be:


Seebold (1990) reads (transliterating g for j, v for B, ë for A, ô for œ):

ophæmu givëda amluþ:iwi ok upduna (a)le wimôv æh þusë

Looijenga (1997) reads:

op hæmu jibada æmluþ : iwi ok up duna (a)le wimœd æh þusa

Interpreted as something like "luck (amluþ) stays (gibada) at home (op hæmu); and (ok) at the yew (iwi) may it grow (ale) on the hill (up duna); Wimœd has (æh) this (þusa)." or "at the homestead stays good fortune, may it also grow near the yew on the terp; Wimœd owns this."

For paleographical reasons (the bookhand-s and Younger Futhark influence), Looijenga dates the stick to after AD 750.