ZiS-151

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ZiS/ZiL-151
ZIS151 V Pysma Museum.jpeg
ZIS-151 in the Verkhnyaya Pyshma museum, Sverdlovskaya Oblast, Russia
Type 2 12ton(2,268kg) 6x6 truck
Place of origin Soviet Union USSR
Production history
Manufacturer ZiS/ZiL
Produced 1948-1966
Variants see text
Specifications (Cargo[1])
Weight 5,540 kg (12,214 lb) empty
Length 6.93 m (273 in)
Width 2.32 m (91 in)
Height 2.74 m (108 in)

Engine ZiL-121
104 hp (78 kW)
Transmission 5 speed OD
Suspension Beam axle on leaf springs
Speed 40 km/h (24.9 mph)
ZiS-151-base with P-3 radio-location station
ZiS-151-based BM-13-16 multiple rocket launcher.

The ZiS-151 (Russian: ЗиС-151) is a general-purpose truck, produced by the Soviet Union in 1947–58, at Automotive Factory No. 2 Zavod imeni Stalina. In 1956, the factory was renamed Zavod imeni Likhacheva, and new trucks were called ZiL-151 (ЗиЛ-151).

The ZiS-151 was the first major Soviet military all-wheel-drive truck built following World War II, replacing the U.S. Studebaker US6 and earlier ZiS-6. Externally, it resembles the International Harvester KB-7.[citation needed] In early 1948, the cabs were made of wood, soon replaced with a steel cab. Tens of thousands were produced, including specialized versions for hauling different types of cargo. The Soviets also found the trucks an ideal platform for BM-13 Katyusha rocket launchers.

The most famous developments of ZiS-151 were the BTR-152 armored personnel carrier and the BAV 485 amphibious vehicle.

In 1958 an improved model, the ZIL-157, was introduced. It differed outwardly by its grille and having single rear tires, instead of the ZiL-151's dual tires. Both models remained in production side by side until 1966.

In 1956 the Chinese began license building the ZiS 151 as the Jiefang CA10, with slightly more power and angular front fenders. The improved single tire CA30, introduced in 1958, remained in production until 1986.

Engine and driveline[edit]

The ZiS-121 engine was closely copied from the Hercules JXD used in Studebaker US6 trucks supplied under lend-lease. A side-valve inline 6 with 92 hp (69 kW) at 2600rpm, the ZiL-57 was slightly more powerful with 104 hp (78 kW). A 102 mm (4.02 in) bore by 114 mm (4.49 in) stroke gave 5.6 L (342 cu in) in a very conservative and reliable engine. With a compression ratio of only 6:1 it could use very low octane gasoline. This engine was in continuous production from the ZiS-151 in 1947 until the license built Chinese CA-30 in 1986.

The transmission was a 5 speed with a direct 4th gear and overdrive 5th gear. The transfer case had high and low gears, and selectively engaged the front axle. Both front and rear axles were a split type.

Chassis[edit]

The chassis was similar to the Studebaker US6, but had been adapted and strengthened for conditions in the USSR. It had a reinforced ladder frame with three driven beam axles, the front on semi elliptical leaf springs, the rear tandem on quarter elliptical leaf springs with locating arms. Wheelbase was 4,225 mm (166 in) to the center of the rear bogey and 4,785 mm (188 in) to the rear axle.

ZiS-151’s tires have a larger cross section, 8.25 in (21 cm) X 20 in (51 cm) verses the US6’s 7.50 in (19 cm) X 20 in (51 cm). Both had dual rear tires. The larger tires allow a larger footprint, spreading the load over a wider area. This allows the truck to be operated on softer surfaces.

The ZiL-157 has much larger 12.00 in (30 cm) X 18 in (46 cm) tires with single rear tires. To further increase the footprint a centralized inflation system allows the tire pressure to be reduced from the cab for soft surfaces, then re-inflated for road use.

The drive shafts were laid out like the US6, but as a mirror image, the front axle differential was offset to the left, while US trucks were offset to the right. Air brakes were used, on the ZiL-157 the air system also supplied the centralized inflation system.

Specifications[edit]

  • 6x6 4,500 kg (9,921 lb) ZIS-150 based truck
  • Engine: ZIS-121; 92 hp (69 kW)/2600 rpm, 6-cyl, 5555 cc
  • Bore/Stroke: 101.6/114.3 mm
  • Length: 6,930 mm (272.8 in), width: 2,320 mm (91.3 in), height: 2,310 mm (90.9 in)
  • Wheelbase: 4,225 mm (166.3 in), rear axis clearance: 260 mm (10.2 in)
  • Front wheel track: 1,590 mm (62.6 in)
  • Rear track: 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
  • Turning radius on front outer wheel: 11.2 metres (36.7 ft)
  • Compression ratio: 6.0
  • Clutch: dry twin plate
  • Gearbox: 5x2 speeds
  • Weight (without load): 5,580 kg (12,302 lb)
  • Maximal speed (loaded, highway): 60 km/h (37 mph)
  • Tyres: 8,25x20 inches
  • Fuel tank capacity: 2x 150 litres (39.6 US gal; 33.0 imp gal)
  • Fuel consumption: 42 L/100 km (6.7 mpg-imp; 5.6 mpg-US)

Variants[edit]

  • ZiS-151: Original production version. Produced 1947-1958.
  • ZiS-121: Tractor-trailer version.
  • BAV 485: Amphibious military version.
  • ZiS-153: Prototype halftrack version. Produced in 1952.
  • ZiS-151G: Prototype for ZIL-157. Also called ZIL-E157.
  • BTR-152: Armored version.

See also[edit]

ZIL-157

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ware, Pat (2010). The World Encyclopedia of Military Vehicles. Lorenz Books. p. 181. ISBN 0-7548-2052-1.