Abu Dujana Al-Afghani
Abu Dujana Al-Afghani, or Abu Nayaf al-Afghani was a claimed spokesperson for "al-Qaeda of Europe" who demanded an end to Spanish support and involvement in the War on Terror. Abu Dujana claimed responsibility for the 2004 Madrid train bombings, as well as a failed train bombing the following month.
Activities and identification
On 13 March a video was found by a mosque in Madrid in which Abu Dujana claimed responsibility for the 11 March Madrid train bombings on behalf of "al-Qaeda in Europe", and on 3 April a letter was sent under the name to a Spanish news station, claiming responsibility for an attempted bombing of a train en route from Madrid to Seville on 2 April, and promising more attacks unless Spain withdrew from the War on Terror (Spain eventually withdrew following a general election that brought Socialists to power in April).
Abu Dujana has been speculated to be two people: Jamal Ahmidan "the Chinese" who was arrested after the attacks, or more likely Youssef Belhadj, a Moroccan based in Molenbeek, Belgium who in 2008 was found guilty of belonging to a terrorist group and sentenced to 12 years in prison, thought by Spanish authorities to be Abu Dujana. Belhajd, also thought to have been connected to the 2003 Casablanca bombings, was arrested in Belgium on 1 February 2005 and extradited to Spain. Convicted after the Madrid bombings, Belhadj was the leader of a Belgian cell of the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (GICM) along with Hassan el-Haski.
- "Spain Arrests Another In Train Bombings". The Washington Post. 6 April 2004.
- "Letter Said to Be From Al Qaeda Threatens Spain". The New York Times. 6 April 2004.
- Weimann, Gabriel (2006). "Virtual Training Camps: Terrorists use of the Internet". In Forest, James JF. Teaching Terror: Strategic and Tactical Learning in the Terrorist World. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 9781461643968.
- "'El Chino' tenía un texto que urgía a reivindicar el 11-M para forzar el cambio de Gobierno". elmundo.es (in Spanish). 9 May 2007.
- "Security high for Spanish trains". CNN. 3 April 2004.
- "Brussels attacks: Why jihadism thrives in suburb of Molenbeek". The Australian. 23 March 2016.
- "Madrid bombings: Defendants". BBC. 17 July 2008.
- Haberfeld, M.R.; von Hassell, Agostino (2009). A New Understanding of Terrorism: Case Studies, Trajectories and Lessons Learned. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 192–193. ISBN 9781441901156.
- "Suspected plot organisers Youssef Belhad.." Getty Images. 16 February 2007.
- "Madrid suspects 'planned' attack in Belgium". Expatica News. 12 April 2006.
- Reinares, Fernando (22 March 2012). "The Evidence of Al-Qa`ida's Role in the 2004 Madrid Attack". Combatting Terrorism Center.
- Reinares, Fernando (3 November 2009). "Jihadist Radicalization and the 2004 Madrid Bombing Network". Combatting Terrorism Center.
- "Madrid bombings: the defendants". The Guardian. 31 October 2007.