From today's featured article
The Baljuna Covenant was an oath sworn in mid-1203 by Temüjin—the future Genghis Khan (depicted)—and the Baljunatu, a small group of companions. Temüjin, khan of the Mongols, had steadily risen in power through the late 12th century in the service of Toghrul, the khan of the Kereit tribe. However, Temüjin was betrayed by Toghrul in early 1203 and subsequently suffered a decisive defeat. He retreated to Baljuna, an unidentified body of water in south-eastern Mongolia, and amidst deprivations swore an oath of mutual fidelity with his companions. Not only did the Covenant promote Temüjin's ideals of social equality, but the oath-takers were themselves ethnically and culturally diverse—among their number were Tengrists like Temüjin, Christians, Muslims, and Buddhists. Three years later in 1206, Temüjin entitled himself Genghis Khan at a kurultai and honoured the Baljunatu with the highest distinctions of his new Mongol Empire. (Full article...)
Did you know ...
- ... that members of the aristocratic Merry Gang during the Stuart Restoration fought watchmen and destroyed a valuable royal sundial (pictured)?
- ... that across her first three albums, Alessia Cara co-wrote 43 songs ranging in themes from teenage, her insecurities about writing music alone, to the five stages of grief?
- ... that Carson Spiers and four of his relatives have played for the Clemson Tigers?
- ... that the historical lands and fishing grounds of the Skinpah were buried underwater by the construction of The Dalles Dam?
- ... that one year after Private Harris Turner was blinded in battle, his fellow soldiers elected him to the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan?
- ... that Saints Peter and Paul Seminary, the last Catholic high school seminary in Ohio before its closure in 1990, was designed with influences from Chinese architecture?
- ... that John Byrne retold the origin of Superman in the 1986 comic book limited series The Man of Steel, 48 years after the character was created?
- ... that the Canadian rock band Rainbow Butt Monkeys changed their name to "Finger Eleven" before releasing their second album Tip?
In the news
- In Australian rules football, Collingwood defeat the Brisbane Lions to win the AFL Grand Final.
- A suicide bombing kills more than 50 people in Mastung, Pakistan.
- Waheeda Rehman (pictured) receives the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for her work in Hindi cinema.
- A fire at a wedding in Qaraqosh, Iraq, kills more than 110 people.
On this day
- 1470 – With King Edward IV of England forced to flee to the Burgundian Netherlands after a rebellion organised by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, Henry VI was restored to the throne of England.
- 1766 – As part of wider food riots, citizens in Nottingham, England, looted large quantities of cheese, with one man killed during attempts to restore order.
- 1879 – Qing China signed the Treaty of Livadia with the Russian Empire, but the terms were so unfavorable that the Chinese government refused to ratify the treaty.
- 1913 – The Shubert Theatre opened on Broadway with a production of Hamlet.
- 1967 – Thurgood Marshall (pictured) was sworn in as the first African-American justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
From today's featured list
Several works by the American-Canadian writer William Gibson garnered critical attention and popular acclaim, receiving Hugo and Nebula Award nominations in the categories of best short story and best novelette and being featured prominently in the annual Locus Awards reader's poll. The themes, settings and characters developed in these stories culminated in his first novel, Neuromancer (1984), which proved to be the author's breakout work, achieving critical and commercial success and virtually initiating the cyberpunk literary genre. It became the first novel to win the "triple crown" of science fiction awards – the Nebula and the Hugo Awards for best novel along with the Philip K. Dick Award for paperback original. Its sequels in the Sprawl trilogy – Count Zero (1986) and Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988) – also attracted Hugo and Nebula nominations for best novel, though major award wins eluded the writer thereafter. (Full list...)
Today's featured picture
The State Historical Museum is a museum of Russian history located between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. The museum's exhibitions range from relics of prehistoric tribes that lived in the territory of present-day Russia, to priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection is in the millions. This photograph of the museum's exterior at night was taken in 2016.
Photograph credit: Diego Delso