1956 (age 61–62)|
|Vice President Islamic Salvation Front|
Ali Belhadj (also Belhadj; Arabic: علي بلحاج) is an Algerian Islamist extremist activist and preacher and cofounder of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) political party, the winner of the June 1990 local elections and the Algerian legislative election, 1991.
Born in 1956 in Tunis to parents of Mauritanian origin from the wilaya (province) of Adrar in Algeria, Belhadj became a teacher of Arabic and an Islamist activist in the 1970s. He had close ties to Mustafa Bouyali's Islamic Armed Movement (MIA), and was arrested in 1983 and sentence in 1985 by a state security court. In 1989, after the Algerian Constitution was changed to allow multiparty democracy, he helped found the FIS, an Islamic party which won the first (and so far only) free elections in Algeria since its independence. He was considered the co-head or number two leader of the FIS, along with president Abassi Madani. During this period, he was a preacher at the famous Al-Sunna mosque in Bab el-Oued, a district in Algiers.
In 1991, soon after FIS had finished a General strike and massive peaceful demonstrations in Algiers that was disrupted by a sudden attack by snipers and armed forces that ended with the death of over 1000 civilians in one day and 1000's injured, he, along with FIS president Abassi Madani, was arrested and jailed on charges of threatening state security. In late 1991, FIS won the first round of parliamentary elections, which were then called off by the military, who banned FIS; Belhadj remained in jail before and throughout all of the Algerian Civil War that followed. In December 1994, the hijackers of Air France Flight 8969 demanded Ali Benhadj's release along with Abbassi Madani. The hijackers later dropped those demands in exchange for fuel to fly to France from Algeria. He was released only after serving a 12-year sentence in 2003 under the condition of abstaining from all political activity. Belhadj has been called a charismatic preacher.
He did not remain free for long; in July 2005, he was arrested for making a statement on Al-Jazeera which praised Iraqi insurgents and condemned Algeria for sending diplomats to Iraq shortly after two Algerian diplomats (Ali Belaroussi and Azzedine Belkadi) had been kidnapped. He was released just under a year later in March 2006, under the Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation.
In 2007 the UN international court, after a 3 year of investigations has announced Ali Belhadj as well as Abbassi Madani the President of the Islamic Pary FIS, to be innocent of all the charges made against them by the Algerian Military Court that jailed them wrongly for 12 years. The UN international court also declared that the Judgement made against these two leaders was illegitimate under the Algerian Constitution as well as International law.
On July 25, 2011, Belhadj's 23-year-old son Abdelkahar, along with three-would be suicide bombers and two of his associates, were shot dead by Algerian security forces while planning a suicide bombing at a military checkpoint in Algiers. Abdelkahar Belhadj was considered to be a high ranking senior leader in Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.
In January 2015 he called for early presidential election as "a first step towards solving the country's political crisis" (Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika suffered a stroke in April 2014).
Seen as the spiritual leader of the most hardline factions of the FIS, he was against women working and condemned democracy as a Western innovation, while emphasizing the importance of Islamic education. In 1990 declared his intention, "to ban France from Algeria intellectually and ideologically, and be done, once and for all, with those whom France has nursed with her poisoned milk." Belhadj declared that:
Democracy is a stranger in the House of God. Guard yourself against those who say that the notion of democracy exists in Islam. There is no democracy in Islam. There exists only the shura (consultation) with its rules and constraints. ... We are not a nation that thinks in terms of majority-minority. The majority does not express the truth.
He was also violently against political pluralism:
Multi-partism is not tolerated unless it agrees with the single framework of Islam ... If people vote against the Law of God ... this is nothing other than blasphemy. The ulama [religious scholars] will order the death of the offenders who have substituted their authority for that of God.
- Entelis, John Pierre (1997). Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa. Indiana University Press. p. 64. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Kepel, Jihad, 2002: p.168
- « Islamic Politics and the Military: Algeria 1962-2008 » by Riadh Sidaoui, in Jan-Erik Lane et Hamadi Redissi, Religion and Politics: Islam and Muslim Civilisation, éd. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, 2009, p 228.
-  Archived December 30, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
- "AFP: Algerian Islamists' former number two indicted". AFP. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Al-Qaeda confirms Belhadj death". Magharebia.com. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "Ali Benhadj calls for early elections to resolve Algerian crisis". Middle East Monitor. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Kepel, Jihad, 2002: p.170-1
- Interview with Slimane Zeghidour, Politique internationale, Autumn 1990, p.156
- Meredith, Martin (2005). The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart of Despair : a ... PublicAffairs. p. 453. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press.