# Alpha–beta transformation

(Redirected from Alpha beta gamma transform)

In electrical engineering, the alpha-beta (${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$) transformation (also known as the Clarke transformation) is a mathematical transformation employed to simplify the analysis of three-phase circuits. Conceptually it is similar to the dq0 transformation. One very useful application of the ${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$ transformation is the generation of the reference signal used for space vector modulation control of three-phase inverters.

## Definition

The ${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$ transform applied to three-phase currents, as used by Edith Clarke, is[1]

${\displaystyle i_{\alpha \beta \gamma }(t)=Ti_{abc}(t)={\frac {2}{3}}{\begin{bmatrix}1&-{\frac {1}{2}}&-{\frac {1}{2}}\\0&{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}&-{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}\\{\frac {1}{2}}&{\frac {1}{2}}&{\frac {1}{2}}\\\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}i_{a}(t)\\i_{b}(t)\\i_{c}(t)\end{bmatrix}}}$

where ${\displaystyle i_{abc}(t)}$ is a generic three-phase current sequence and ${\displaystyle i_{\alpha \beta \gamma }(t)}$ is the corresponding current sequence given by the transformation ${\displaystyle T}$. The inverse transform is:

${\displaystyle i_{abc}(t)=T^{-1}i_{\alpha \beta \gamma }(t)={\begin{bmatrix}1&0&1\\-{\frac {1}{2}}&{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}&1\\-{\frac {1}{2}}&-{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}&1\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}i_{\alpha }(t)\\i_{\beta }(t)\\i_{\gamma }(t)\end{bmatrix}}.}$

The above Clarke's transformation preserves the amplitude of the electrical variables which it is applied to. Indeed, consider a three-phase symmetric, direct, current sequence

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}i_{a}(t)=&{\sqrt {2}}I\cos \theta (t),\\i_{b}(t)=&{\sqrt {2}}I\cos \left(\theta (t)-{\frac {2}{3}}\pi \right),\\i_{c}(t)=&{\sqrt {2}}I\cos \left(\theta (t)+{\frac {2}{3}}\pi \right),\end{aligned}}}

where ${\displaystyle I}$ is the RMS of ${\displaystyle i_{a}(t)}$, ${\displaystyle i_{b}(t)}$, ${\displaystyle i_{c}(t)}$ and ${\displaystyle \theta (t)}$ is the generic time-varying angle that can also be set to ${\displaystyle \omega t}$ without loss of generality. Then, by applying ${\displaystyle T}$ to the current sequence, it results

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}i_{\alpha }=&{\sqrt {2}}I\cos \theta (t),\\i_{\beta }=&{\sqrt {2}}I\sin \theta (t),\\i_{\gamma }=&0,\end{aligned}}}

where the last equation holds since we have considered balanced currents. As it is shown in the above, the amplitudes of the currents in the ${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$ reference frame are the same of that in the natural reference frame.

### Power invariant transformation

The active and reactive powers computed in the Clark's domain with the transformation shown above are not the same of those computed in the standard reference frame. This happens because ${\displaystyle T}$ is not unitary. In order to preserve the active and reactive powers one has, instead, to consider

${\displaystyle i_{\alpha \beta \gamma }(t)=Ti_{abc}(t)={\sqrt {\frac {2}{3}}}{\begin{bmatrix}1&-{\frac {1}{2}}&-{\frac {1}{2}}\\0&{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}&-{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}\\{\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}&{\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}&{\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}\\\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}i_{a}(t)\\i_{b}(t)\\i_{c}(t)\end{bmatrix}},}$

which is a unitary matrix and the inverse coincides with its transpose.[2] In this case the amplitudes of the transformed currents are not the same of those in the standard reference frame, that is

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}i_{\alpha }=&{\sqrt {3}}I\cos \theta (t),\\i_{\beta }=&{\sqrt {3}}I\sin \theta (t),\\i_{\gamma }=&0.\end{aligned}}}

Finally, the inverse transformation in this case is

${\displaystyle i_{abc}(t)={\sqrt {\frac {2}{3}}}{\begin{bmatrix}1&0&{\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}\\-{\frac {1}{2}}&{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}&{\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}\\-{\frac {1}{2}}&-{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}&{\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}\\\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}i_{\alpha }(t)\\i_{\beta }(t)\\i_{\gamma }(t)\end{bmatrix}}.}$

### Simplified transformation

Since in a balanced system ${\displaystyle i_{a}(t)+i_{b}(t)+i_{c}(t)=0}$ and thus ${\displaystyle i_{\gamma }(t)=0}$ one can also consider the simplified transform[3]

${\displaystyle i_{\alpha \beta }(t)={\frac {2}{3}}{\begin{bmatrix}1&-{\frac {1}{2}}&-{\frac {1}{2}}\\0&{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}&-{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}i_{a}(t)\\i_{b}(t)\\i_{c}(t)\end{bmatrix}}}$

which is simply the original Clarke's transformation with the 3rd equation thrown away, and

${\displaystyle i_{abc}(t)={\frac {3}{2}}{\begin{bmatrix}{\frac {2}{3}}&0\\-{\frac {1}{3}}&{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{3}}\\-{\frac {1}{3}}&-{\frac {\sqrt {3}}{3}}\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}i_{\alpha }(t)\\i_{\beta }(t)\end{bmatrix}}.}$

## Geometric Interpretation

The ${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$ transformation can be thought of as the projection of the three phase quantities (voltages or currents) onto two stationary axes, the alpha axis and the beta axis.

Shown above is the ${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$ transform as applied to three symmetrical currents flowing through three windings separated by 120 physical degrees. The three phase currents lag their corresponding phase voltages by ${\displaystyle \delta }$. The ${\displaystyle \alpha }$-${\displaystyle \beta }$ axis is shown with the ${\displaystyle \alpha }$ axis aligned with phase 'A'. The current vector ${\displaystyle I_{\alpha \beta \gamma }}$ rotates with angular velocity ${\displaystyle \omega }$. There is no ${\displaystyle \gamma }$ component since the currents are balanced.

### ${\displaystyle dq0}$ transform

The ${\displaystyle dq0}$ transform is conceptually similar to the ${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$ transform. Whereas the ${\displaystyle dq0}$ transform is the projection of the phase quantities onto a rotating two-axis reference frame, the ${\displaystyle \alpha \beta \gamma }$ transform can be thought of as the projection of the phase quantities onto a stationary two-axis reference frame.