Anarcho-naturism

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Anarcho-naturism (also anarchist naturism and naturist anarchism) appeared in the late 19th century as the union of anarchist and naturist philosophies.[1][2] "In many of the alternative communities established in Britain in the early 1900s nudism, anarchism, vegetarianism and free love were accepted as part of a politically radical way of life. In the 1920s the inhabitants of the anarchist community at Whiteway, near Stroud in Gloucestershire, shocked the conservative residents of the area with their shameless nudity."[3] Mainly it had importance within individualist anarchist circles[4][5][6] in Spain,[1][2][5][7] France,[5][8] Portugal,[9] and Cuba.[7][10] [excessive citations]

Anarcho-naturism advocates vegetarianism, free love, nudism, hiking and an ecological world view within anarchist groups and outside them.[2][6] Anarcho-naturism also promotes an ecological worldview, small ecovillages, and most prominently nudism as a way to avoid the artificiality of the industrial mass society of modernity.[2] Naturist individualist anarchists see the individual in their biological, physical and psychological aspects and tried to eliminate social determinations.[2]

History[edit]

Early influences[edit]

An important early influence on anarchist naturism was the thought of Henry David Thoreau,[5] Leo Tolstoy[2] and Elisee Reclus.[11]

Walden by Henry David Thoreau. Influential early eco-anarchist work

Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. His thought is an early influence on green anarchism, but with an emphasis on the individual experience of the natural world, influencing later naturist currents.[5] Simple living as a rejection of a materialist lifestyle[5] and self-sufficiency were Thoreau's goals, and the whole project was inspired by transcendentalist philosophy. "Many have seen in Thoreau one of the precursors of ecologism and anarcho-primitivism represented today in John Zerzan. For George Woodcock this attitude can be also motivated by certain idea of resistance to progress and of rejection of the growing materialism which is the nature of American society in the mid-19th century."[2] John Zerzan himself included the text "Excursions" (1863) by Thoreau in his edited compilation of anti-civilization writings called Against civilization: Readings and reflections from 1999.

France[edit]

For the influential French anarchist Élisée Reclus, naturism "was at the same time a physical means of revitalization, a rapport with the body completely different from the hypocrisy and taboos which prevailed at the time, a more convivial way to see life in society, and an incentive to respect the planet. Thus naturism develops in France, in particular under the influence of Élizée Reclus, at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century among anarchistic communities resulting from utopian socialism."[11]

In France, later important propagandists of anarcho-naturism include Henri Zisly[12] and Émile Gravelle who collaborated in La Nouvelle Humanité, Le Naturien, Le Sauvage, L'Ordre Naturel, and La Vie Naturelle.[13] Their ideas were important in individualist anarchist circles in France as well as Spain, where Federico Urales (pseudonym of Joan Montseny) promoted the ideas of Gravelle and Zisly in La Revista Blanca (1898–1905).[14] Zisly's political activity, "primarily aimed at supporting a return to 'natural life' through writing and practical involvement, stimulated lively confrontations within and outside the anarchist environment. Zisly vividly criticized progress and civilization, which he regarded as 'absurd, ignoble, and filthy.' He openly opposed industrialization, arguing that machines were inherently authoritarian, defended nudism, advocated a non-dogmatic and non-religious adherence to the 'laws of nature,' recommended a lifestyle based on limited needs and self-sufficiency, and disagreed with vegetarianism, which he considered 'anti-scientific.'"[12]

Richard D. Sonn comments on the influence of naturist views in the wider French anarchist movement:

In her memoir of her anarchist years that was serialized in Le Matin in 1913, Rirette Maîtrejean made much of the strange food regimens of some of the compagnons. [...] She described the "tragic bandits" of the Bonnot gang as refusing to eat meat or drink wine, preferring plain water. Her humorous comments reflected the practices of the "naturist" wing of individualist anarchists who favored a simpler, more "natural" lifestyle centered on a vegetarian diet. In the 1920s, this wing was expressed by the journal Le Néo-Naturien, Revue des Idées Philosophiques et Naturiennes. Contributors condemned the fashion of smoking cigarettes, especially by young women; a long article of 1927 actually connected cigarette smoking with cancer! Others distinguished between vegetarians, who foreswore the eating of meat, from the stricter "vegetalians," who ate nothing but vegetables. An anarchist named G. Butaud, who made this distinction, opened a restaurant called the Foyer Végétalien in the nineteenth arrondissement in 1923. Other issues of the journal included vegetarian recipes. In 1925, when the young anarchist and future detective novelist Léo Malet arrived in Paris from Montpellier, he initially lodged with anarchists who operated another vegetarian restaurant that served only vegetables, with neither fish nor eggs. Nutritional concerns coincided with other means of encouraging health bodies, such as nudism and gymnastics. For a while in the 1920s, after they were released from jail for antiwar and birth-control activities, Jeanne and Eugène Humbert retreated to the relative safety of the "integral living" movement that promoted nude sunbathing and physical fitness, which were seen as integral aspects of health in the Greek sense of gymnos, meaning nude. This back-to-nature, primitivist current was not a monopoly of the left; the same interests were echoed by right-wing Germans in the interwar era. In France, however, these proclivities were mostly associated with anarchists, insofar as they suggested an ideal of self-control and the rejection of social taboos and prejudices.

— Richard D. Sonn, [15]

Henri Zisly[edit]

Main article: Henri Zisly

Henri Zisly (born in Paris, November 2, 1872; died in 1945)[16] was a French individualist anarchist and naturist.[12] He participated alongside Henri Beylie and Émile Gravelle in many journals such as La Nouvelle Humanité and La Vie Naturelle, which promoted anarchist-naturism. In 1902, he was one of the main initiators, alongside Georges Butaud and Sophie Zaïkowska, of the cooperative Colonie de Vaux established in Essômes-sur-Marne, in l'Aisne.

Zisly's political activity, "primarily aimed at supporting a return to 'natural life' through writing and practical involvement, stimulated lively confrontations within and outside the anarchist environment. Zisly vividly criticized progress and civilization, which he regarded as 'absurd, ignoble, and filthy.' He openly opposed industrialization, arguing that machines were inherently authoritarian, defended nudism, advocated a non-dogmatic and non-religious adherence to the 'laws of nature,' recommended a lifestyle based on limited needs and self-sufficiency, and disagreed with vegetarianism, which he considered 'anti-scientific.'"[12]

Spain[edit]

This relationship between anarchism and naturism was quite important at the end of the 1920s in Spain:[1]

Isaac Puente, an influential Spanish anarchist during the 1920s and 1930s and an important propagandist of anarcho-naturism,[17][18] was a militant of both the CNT anarcho-syndicalist trade union and Iberian Anarchist Federation. He published the book El Comunismo Libertario y otras proclamas insurreccionales y naturistas (en:Libertarian Communism and other insurrectionary and naturist proclaims) in 1933, which sold around 100,000 copies,[17]:4 and wrote the final document for the Extraordinary Confederal Congress of Zaragoza of 1936 which established the main political line for the CNT for that year.[19] Puente was a doctor who approached his medical practice from a naturist point of view.[17] He saw naturism as an integral solution for the working classes, alongside Neo-Malthusianism, and believed it concerned the living being while anarchism addressed the social being.[17] He believed capitalist societies endangered the well-being of humans from both a socioeconomic and sanitary viewpoint, and promoted anarcho-communism alongside naturism as a solution.[17]

This ecological tendency in Spanish anarchism was strong enough as to call the attention of the CNTFAI in Spain. Daniel Guérin in Anarchism: From Theory to Practice reports:

Spanish anarcho-syndicalism had long been concerned to safeguard the autonomy of what it called "affinity groups." There were many adepts of naturism and vegetarianism among its members, especially among the poor peasants of the south. Both these ways of living were considered suitable for the transformation of the human being in preparation for a libertarian society. At the Saragossa congress the members did not forget to consider the fate of groups of naturists and nudists, "unsuited to industrialization." As these groups would be unable to supply all their own needs, the congress anticipated that their delegates to the meetings of the confederation of communes would be able to negotiate special economic agreements with the other agricultural and industrial communes. On the eve of a vast, bloody, social transformation, the CNT did not think it foolish to try to meet the infinitely varied aspirations of individual human beings.

Cuba[edit]

The historian Kirwin R. Schaffer in his study of Cuban anarchism reports anarcho-naturism as "[a] third strand within the island's anarchist movement" alongside anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism.[10] Naturism offered a global alternative health and lifestyle movement. Naturists focused on redefining one's life to live simply, to eat cheap but nutritious vegetarian diets, and to raise one's own food if possible. The countryside was posited as a romantic alternative to urban living, and some naturists even promoted what they saw as the healthful benefits of nudism. Globally, the naturist movement counted anarchists, liberals, and socialists as its followers. However, in Cuba a particular "anarchist" dimension evolved led by people like Adrián del Valle, who spearheaded the Cuban effort to shift naturism's focus away from only individual health to naturism having a "social emancipatory" function."[10]

Schaffer reports the influence that anarcho-naturism had outside naturist circles. So "[f]or instance, nothing inherently prevented an anarcho-syndicalist in the Havana restaurant workers' union from supporting the alternative health care programs of the anarcho-naturists and seeing those alternative practices as 'revolutionary.'".[10] "Anarcho-naturists promoted a rural ideal, simple living, and being in harmony with Nature as ways to save the laborers from the increasingly industrialized character of Cuba. Besides promoting an early twentieth-century "back-to-the-land" movement, they used these romantic images of Nature to illustrate how far removed a capitalist industrialized Cuba had departed from an anarchist view of natural harmony."[10] The main propagandizer in Cuba of anarcho-naturism was the Catalonia born "Adrián del Valle (aka Palmiro de Lidia)...Over the following decades, Del Valle became a constant presence in not only the anarchist press that proliferated in Cuba but also mainstream literary publications...From 1912 to 1913 he edited the freethinking journal El Audaz. Then he began his largest publishing job by helping to found and edit the monthly alternative health magazine that followed the anarcho-naturist line Pro-Vida.[10]

Other countries[edit]

Naturism also met anarchism in the United Kingdom. "In many of the alternative communities established in Britain in the early 1900s nudism, anarchism, vegetarianism and free love were accepted as part of a politically radical way of life. In the 1920s the inhabitants of the anarchist community at Whiteway, near Stroud in Gloucestershire, shocked the conservative residents of the area with their shameless nudity."[3]

In Italy, during the IX Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara in 1965, a group decided to split off from this organization and created the Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica. In the seventies it mostly comprised "veteran individualist anarchists with an pacifism orientation, naturism, etc,...".[4]

Criticisms[edit]

American anarcho-syndicalist Sam Dolgoff shows some of the criticism that some people on the other anarchist currents at the time had for anarcho-naturist tendencies. "Speaking of life at the Stelton Colony of New York in the 1930s, noted with disdain that it, "like other colonies, was infested by vegetarians, naturists, nudists, and other cultists, who sidetracked true anarchist goals." One resident "always went barefoot, ate raw food, mostly nuts and raisins, and refused to use a tractor, being opposed to machinery, and he didn't want to abuse horses, so he dug the earth himself." Such self-proclaimed anarchists were in reality "ox-cart anarchists," Dolgoff said, "who opposed organization and wanted to return to a simpler life." In an interview with Paul Avrich before his death, Dolgoff also grumbled, "I am sick and tired of these half-assed artists and poets who object to organization and want only to play with their belly buttons".[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Ortega, Carlos (Winter 2003). "History: Anachy and Naturism". Naturismo.org Magazine. Madrid Naturist Asociation. Retrieved 2016-07-11. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Roselló, Jose Maria (2005), "El Naturismo Libertario (1890–1939)" (PDF), Cuaderno de Pensamiento (4), archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-02 
  3. ^ a b Terry Phillips. "Nudism the radical tradition". Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. 
  4. ^ a b El movimiento libertario en Italia at the Wayback Machine (archived October 12, 2013)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Díez, Xavier (1 April 2006). "La insumisión voluntaria: El anarquismo individualista español durante la Dictadura y la Segunda República (1923–1938)" (PDF). Germinal: 41. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-18. 
  6. ^ a b Ytak, Cathy (2000). "Anarchisme et naturisme, aujourd'hui". Naturisme et Anarchisme (in French). Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2016-07-14. 
  7. ^ a b Bracons, Eduard Masjuan (2006). "- La cultura de la naturaleza en el anarquismo iberico y cubano" (PDF). Signos Históricos (in Spanish). ISSN 1665-4420. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  8. ^ Armand, E. (2006). "Recension des articles de l'En-Dehors consacrés au naturisme et au nudisme". Naturisme et Anarchisme (in French). Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2016-07-14. 
  9. ^ Freire, João (2002). "Anarchisme et naturisme au Portugal, dans les années 1920". Les anarchistes du Portugal. Confédération nationale du travail. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Shaffer, Kirwin R. (2005). Anarchism and countercultural politics in early twentieth-century Cuba. Gainsville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0813027918. 
  11. ^ a b The pioneers at the Wayback Machine (archived October 25, 2012)
  12. ^ a b c d Boni, Stefano (2009). Immanuel Ness, ed. "Zisly, Henri (1872–1945)". The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest : International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest. ISBN 9781405184649. Retrieved 2016-07-11. 
  13. ^ The daily bleed at the Wayback Machine (archived July 1, 2016)
  14. ^ Morán, Agustín (12 June 2011). "Los origenes del naturismo libertario" [The origins of Libertarian Naturism]. La Garbancita Ecologica (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2016-07-14. 
  15. ^ Sonn, Richard D. (2010). Sex, Violence, and the Avant-Garde. Penn State University. ISBN 978-0-271-03663-2. 
  16. ^ Henri Zisly page; from the Daily Bleed's Anarchist Encyclopedia
  17. ^ a b c d e Isaac Puente., El Comunismo Libertario y otras proclamas insurreccionales y naturistas (PDF) 
  18. ^ Iñiguez, Miguel (2004). Anarquismo y naturismo: el caso de Isaac Puente. Asociación Isaac Puente. 
  19. ^ Diez, Xavier (2007). El anarquismo individualista en España (1923-1938). Barcelona: Virus. ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6. Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  20. ^ Guerin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. NYU Press. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-1-58367-492-5. 
  21. ^ Sheppard, Brian Oliver (2003). "Anarchism vs. Primitivism". The Anarchist Library. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press. Retrieved 2016-07-13. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]