Anthophyta

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The anthophytes were thought[when?][by whom?] to be a clade comprising plants bearing flower-like structures. The group contained the angiosperms - the extant flowering plants, such as roses and grasses - as well as the Gnetales and the extinct Bennettitales.[1]

Detailed morphological and molecular studies have shown that the group is not actually monophyletic, with proposed floral homologies of the gnetophytes and the angiosperms having evolved in parallel.[2] This makes it easier to reconcile molecular clock data that suggests that the angiosperms diverged from the gymnosperms around 300 million years ago.[3]

Some more recent studies have used the word anthophyte to describe a group which includes the angiosperms and a variety of fossils (glossopterids, Pentoxylon, Bennettitales, and Caytonia), but not the Gnetales.[4]

Phylogeny of anthophytes and gymnosperms, from [2]


Cycads




Ginkgo




Conifers



Anthophytes

Bennettitales



Gnetales



Angiosperms







Angiosperms



Gymnosperms



Cycads



Bennettitales




Ginkgo





Conifers



Gnetales





Traditional view Modern view

References[edit]

  1. ^ Doyle, J. A.; Donoghue, M. J. (1986). "SEED PLANT PHYLOGENY AND THE ORIGIN OF ANGIOSPERMS - AN EXPERIMENTAL CLADISTIC APPROACH". Botanical Review. 52 (4): 321–431. doi:10.1007/bf02861082. 
  2. ^ a b Crepet, W. L. (2000). "Progress in understanding angiosperm history, success, and relationships: Darwin's abominably "perplexing phenomenon"". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (24): 12939–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.24.12939. PMC 34068Freely accessible. PMID 11087846. 
  3. ^ Nam J.; et al. (2003). "Antiquity and Evolution of the MADS-Box Gene Family Controlling Flower Development in Plants". Mol. Biol. Evol. 20 (9): 1435–1447. doi:10.1093/molbev/msg152Freely accessible. PMID 12777513. 
  4. ^ Soltis, D. E.; Bell, CD; Kim, S; Soltis, PS (June 2008). "The Year in Evolutionary Biology 2008". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1133 (1): 3–25. doi:10.1196/annals.1438.005. PMID 18559813.