Taiwanofungus camphoratus

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Taiwanofungus camphoratus
牛樟芝1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Basidiomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: incertae sedis
Genus: Taiwanofungus
Species: T. camphoratus
Binomial name
Taiwanofungus camphoratus
(M.Zang & C.H.Su) Sheng H.Wu, Z.H.Yu, Y.C.Dai & C.H.Su (as comphoratus) (1994)
Synonyms
  • Antrodia camphorata (M.Zang & C.H.Su) Sheng H.Wu, Ryvarden & T.T.Chang (1997)
  • Ganoderma camphoratum M.Zang & C.H.Su (1990)

Taiwanofungus camphoratus, also known as stout camphor fungus (Chinese: 牛樟芝), is a species of fungus that is endemic to Taiwan, where it grows only on the endemic tree Cinnamomum kanehirae, causing a brown heart rot. Synonyms include Antrodia camphorata and Ganoderma camphoratum.

Traditional medicine[edit]

The fungus is well-known and highly valued as a medicinal mushroom in Taiwan where it is known as niu-chang, niu-chang-ku, or niu-chang-chih. It is commonly used as an anti-cancer, anti-itching, anti-allergy, anti-fatigue,[1] and liver protective herb in Taiwanese traditional medicine.[2][3] An extract was reported to slow the growth of human breast cancer cells.[4] A water extract of mycelium grown in liquid culture has been reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties in vitro.[5]

Recently, the 32.15 Mb genome containing 9,254 genes was sequenced.[6]

Chemical constituents[edit]

Antcin B, antrodioxolanone, antrocamphin B, antroquinonol, antrocamphins, zhankuic acids, and other antcins have been reported as constituents of Taiwanofungus camphoratus.

Ecological concern[edit]

Because of its use as a medicinal mushroom, fruiting bodies of the fungus can fetch high prices. Good quality fruiting bodies were reported to cost as much as US $15,000/kg in 1997, before artificial cultivation methods were developed.[7] Some have illegally farmed the fungus in the forests of Taiwan by hollowing out endangered stout camphor trees (Cinnamomum kanehirae or niu zhang Chinese: 牛樟).[8] This despite the equal potency of T. camphotatus grown indoors.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Patent: Anti-fatigue cyclohexenone compounds from Antrodia camphorata
  2. ^ Ao ZH, Xu ZH, Lu ZM, Xu HY, Zhang XM, Dou WF; Xu; Lu; Xu; Zhang; Dou (January 2009). "Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) and its potential in treating liver diseases". J Ethnopharmacol. 121 (2): 194–212. PMID 19061947. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.10.039. 
  3. ^ Liu, YW; Lu, KH; Ho, CT; Sheen, LY (2012). "Protective effects of Antrodia cinnamomea against liver injury". J Tradit Complement Med. 2 (4): 284–294. PMC 3942906Freely accessible. PMID 24716143. 
  4. ^ Hseu YC, Chen SC, Chen HC, Liao JW, Yang HL; Chen; Chen; Liao; Yang (August 2008). "Antrodia camphorata inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo". Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (8): 2680–8. PMID 18550246. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.04.036. 
  5. ^ Hseu, Y-C; Chang, W-C; Hseu, Y-T; Lee, C-Y; Yech, Y-J; Chen, P-C; Chen, J-Y; Yang, H-L (2002). "Protection of oxidative damage by aqueous extract from Antrodia camphorata mycelia in normal human erythrocytes". Life Sciences. 71 (4): 469–482. doi:10.1016/s0024-3205(02)01686-7. 
  6. ^ Lu, MY.; Fan, WL.; Wang, WF.; Chen, T.; Tang, YC.; Chu, FH.; Chang, TT.; Wang, SY.; Li, MY.; Chen, Y. H.; Lin, Z. S.; Yang, K. J.; Chen, S. M.; Teng, Y. C.; Lin, Y. L.; Shaw, J. F.; Wang, T. F.; Li, W. H. (Oct 2014). "Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 111 (44): E4743–52. PMC 4226107Freely accessible. PMID 25336756. doi:10.1073/pnas.1417570111. 
  7. ^ Wu SH, Ryvarden L, Chang TT (1997). "Antrodia camphorata ("niu-chang-chih"), new combination of a medicinal fungus in Taiwan". Bot Bull Acad Sin. 38: 273–275. 
  8. ^ China Post news staff (12 March 2012). "Taitung takes action to help prevent loss of Ligavon's last ancient camphor". Taiwan: The China Post. Retrieved 12 March 2012. Many timber thieves drill away stout camphor trunks, collecting the fungi, selling the timber, and leaving gigantic “tunnels” in the enormous trees' trunks. 
  9. ^ China Post news staff (2 March 2010). "Cultivated camphor fungi as effective as wild ones". Taiwan: The China Post. Retrieved 12 March 2012. The medical effect of wild stout camphor fungi (牛樟芝) is the same as cultivated ones, according to a study of the Department of Forestry at National Chung Hing University (NCHU). 

External links[edit]