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Apri (āprī) in Sanskrit means "conciliation, propitiation" and refers to special invocations spoken previous to the offering of oblations in an animal sacrifice.[1] Some scholars have proposed however, that these hymns were originally meant for a family ritual centered around Agni, which was then later connected to the animal sacrifice.[2][3]


Of the ten Aprisuktas mentioned in Gargya Narayana's commentary, I.13 and I.142 both invoke the Narāśaṁsa and Tanūnapāt manifestations of Agni, I.188, III.4, IX.5 and X.110 invoke only the Tanūnapāt manifestation and II.3, V.5, VII.2 and X.70 invoke only the Narāśaṁsa manifestation.

Āprīsūkta[1] Ṛṣi[1]
1.13 Medhātithi Kāṇva
1.142 Dīrghatamās Aucathya
1.188 Agastya Maitrāvaruṇi
2.3 Gṛtsamada Bhārgava Śaunaka, originally Gṛtsamada Āṅgirasa Śaunahotra
3.4 Viśvāmitra Gāthina
5.5 Vasuśruta Ātreya
7.2 Vasiṣṭha Maitrāvaruṇi
9.5 Asita Kāśyapa or Devala Kāśyapa
10.70 Sumitra Vādhryaśva
10.110 Jamadagni Bhārgava or Rāma Jāmadagnya


  1. ^ a b c Jamison, Stephanie W.; Brereton, Joel (2014). The Rigveda: The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 104, 318, 393, 405, 472, 667, 883, 1239, 1494, 1576. ISBN 9780199370184.
  2. ^ Bosch, Lourens P. van den (1985). "The Āprī Hymns of the Ṛgveda and Their Interpretation". Indo-Iranian Journal. 28 (2): 97.
  3. ^ Gonda, Jan (1975). A History of Indian Literature. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. p. 104.
  • āprī in: Monier-Williams A Sanskrit Dictionary, 1899.
  • R. Fick, "Gotra" in: ed. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vol. 6, 1999, p. 355
  • Samir Nath, "Gotra-system" in: Dictionary Of Vedanta, 2002, p. 153.