Aquaretic

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An aquaretic is a class of drug that is used to promote aquaresis, the excretion of water without electrolyte loss.[1] Aquaretics are not strictly speaking diuretics, but are sometimes classified as such.

Aquaresis is preferable to diuresis in the treatment of hyponatremia.

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Aquaretics increase urine output without increasing sodium and chloride excretion, thus causing an increase in urine whilst retaining electrolytes.[2]

Examples[edit]

A number of herbal medicines are classified as aquaretics, for example common horsetail or common nettle leaves.[3]

Synthetic aquaretics are vasopressin receptor antagonists, such conivaptan, tolvaptan, demeclocycline and OPC-31260, as well as lithium. These have been used in clinical trials as a treatment for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).[4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicholas H. Fiebach; Lee Randol Barker (2007). Principles of Ambulatory Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1390. ISBN 0-7817-6227-8. 
  2. ^ George M. Brenner; Craig W. Stevens (2013). Phamacology. Elsevier Inc. pp. 120–129. ISBN 978-1455702824. 
  3. ^ Lucinda G. Miller; Wallace J. Murray (1998). Herbal Medicinals: A Clinician's Guide. Haworth Press. p. 147. ISBN 0-7890-0466-6. 
  4. ^ Toshikazu Saito; San-e Ishikawa; Keishi Abe; Kyuzi Kamoi; Kenichi Yamada; Kurakazu Shimizu; Takao Saruta; Sho Yoshida (April 1997). "Acute Aquaresis by the Nonpeptide Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) Antagonist OPC-31260 Improves Hyponatremia in Patients with Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (The Endocrine Society) 82 (4): 1054–1057. doi:10.1210/jcem.82.4.3900. PMID 9100572. 
  5. ^ D. A. Warrell; Timothy M. Cox; John D. Firth (2003). Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Oxford University Press. pp. 211–212. ISBN 0-19-856978-5.