Barilius nelsoni is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is endemic to India and inhabits clear, gravelly streams. It grows to 6.2 cm (2.4 in) TL. It might be a junior synonym of Barilius radiolatus. It is named in honour of Joseph S. Nelson, American ichthyologist.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2015). "Barilius nelsoni" in FishBase. October 2015 version.
- Eschmeyer, W. N. and R. Fricke (eds) (2 November 2015). "Catalog of Fishes". California Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "Joseph S. Nelson". University of Alberta. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
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