Glycine betaine aldehyde

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Glycine betaine aldehyde
Betaine aldehyde.svg
IUPAC name
Other names
Betaine aldehyde
7758-31-8 (chloride salt)
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChemSpider 244
KEGG C00576
PubChem 249
Molar mass 102.16 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Glycine betaine aldehyde, often simply called betaine aldehyde,[1] is an intermediate in the metabolism of glycine, serine and threonine. The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial).[2]

Chemical structure[edit]

Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde and quaternary ammonium compound. It can be considered a derivative of the amino acid glycine. Its chemical formula is C5H12NO+.

Biological function[edit]

Glycine betaine aldehyde is a component of glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. It also serves as an osmolyte.

It can be found in cytoplasm and mitochondria within the kidney, neurons, and stratum corneum.[3]


  1. ^ Betaine aldehyde, Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank
  2. ^ Yilmaz JL, Bülow L. (December 2002). "Enhanced stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase fusion protein.". Biotechnol Prog. 18 (6): 1176–82. doi:10.1021/bp020057k. PMID 12467448. 
  3. ^ Metabocard for Dimethylglycine, Human Metabolome Database