Black-and-white mannikin

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Black-and-white mannikin
Black-and-white Mannikin (Spermestes bicolor) (7699911414), crop.jpg
In Douala, Cameroon
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Estrildidae
Genus: Lonchura
Species: L. bicolor
Binomial name
Lonchura bicolor
(Fraser, 1843)
Black-and-white Mannikin Distribution.jpg

The black-and-white mannikin or black-and-white munia (Lonchura bicolor) is a species of estrildid finch found in western and central Africa. It has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 4,200,000 km2. It is found in moist savanna and subtropical/tropical lowland moist forest habitat. The status of the species is evaluated as least concern. They are seedeaters, but are known to feed on algae.[3]


Origin and phylogeny has been obtained by Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al.[4] Estrildinae may have originated in India and dispersed thereafter (towards Africa and Pacific Ocean habitats).


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Lonchura bicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Map based on IUCN data
  3. ^ Savalli, U.M. (1989) Black and White Mannikins Lonchura bicolor eating algae. Scopus 13: 136.
  4. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Gomez-Prieto P; Reguera R; Parga-Lozano C; Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study" (PDF). The Open Ornithology Journal. 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029.