Black-and-white mannikin

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Black-and-white mannikin
Black-and-white Mannikin (Spermestes bicolor) (7699911414), crop.jpg
In Douala, Cameroon
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Estrildidae
Genus: Spermestes
S. bicolor
Binomial name
Spermestes bicolor
(Fraser, 1843)
Black-and-white Mannikin Distribution.jpg

The black-and-white mannikin (Spermestes bicolor) or black-and-white munia, is a species of estrildid finch, widely occurring throughout the African tropical rainforest. It has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 4,200,000 km2. It is found in moist savanna and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest habitat. The status of the species is evaluated as least concern. They are seedeaters, but are known to feed on algae.[3]


Origin and phylogeny has been obtained by Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al.[4] Estrildinae may have originated in India and dispersed thereafter (towards Africa and Pacific Ocean habitats).


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Spermestes bicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T105968860A111180974. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T105968860A111180974.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  2. ^ Map based on IUCN data
  3. ^ Savalli, U.M. (1989) Black and White Mannikins Lonchura bicolor eating algae. Scopus 13: 136.
  4. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Gomez-Prieto P; Reguera R; Parga-Lozano C; Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study" (PDF). The Open Ornithology Journal. 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029.