Arrigo Boito (Italian: [arˈriːɡo ˈbɔito]; born Enrico Giuseppe Giovanni Boito; 24 February 1842 – 10 June 1918) was an Italian librettist, composer, poet and critic whose only completed opera was Mefistofele. Among the operas for which he wrote the libretti are Giuseppe Verdi's monumental last two operas Otello and Falstaff as well as Amilcare Ponchielli's La Gioconda.
Along with Emilio Praga and his own brother Camillo Boito, he is regarded as one of the prominent representatives of the Scapigliatura (Italian bohemian) artistic movement. He wrote essays under the anagrammatic pseudonym of Tobia Gorrio
Born in Padua, the son of Silvestro Boito (1802–1856), an Italian painter of miniatures, who was not of noble birth but passed himself off as a nobleman, and his wife, a Polish countess, Józefina Radolińska, Boito studied music at the Milan Conservatory with Alberto Mazzucato until 1861, where a friend, Albert Visetti resided as well. His older brother, Camillo Boito, was an Italian architect and engineer as well as a noted art critic, art historian and novelist.
Between 1887 and 1894, he had an affair with the celebrated actress Eleonora Duse. Their relationship was carried out in a highly clandestine manner, presumably because of Boito's many aristocratic friends and acquaintances. Despite this, their voluminous correspondence over the years survives. The two remained on good terms until his death.
Towards the end of his musical career, Boito succeeded Giovanni Bottesini as director of the Parma Conservatory after the latter's death in 1889 and held the post until 1897. He received the honorary degree of Doctor of Music from the University of Cambridge in 1893, and on his death in Milan he was interred there in the Cimitero Monumentale. He was an atheist.
Career in music
Boito wrote very little music, but completed (and later destroyed) the opera Ero e Leandro and left incomplete a further opera, Nerone, which he had been working at, on and off, between 1877 and 1915. Excluding its last act, for which Boito left only a few sketches, Nerone was finished after his death by Arturo Toscanini and Vincenzo Tommasini and premiered at La Scala in 1924. He also left a Symphony in A minor in manuscript.
His only completed opera, Mefistofele, based on Goethe's Faust, was given its first performance on 5 March 1868, at La Scala, Milan. The premiere, which he conducted himself, was badly received, provoking riots and duels over its supposed "Wagnerism", and it was closed by the police after two performances. Verdi commented, "He aspires to originality but succeeds only at being strange." Boito withdrew the opera from further performances to rework it, and it had a more successful second premiere, in Bologna on 10 April 1875. This revised and drastically cut version also changed Faust from a baritone to a tenor. Mefistofele is the only work of his performed with any regularity today, and Enrico Caruso included its two tenor arias in his first recording session. The prologue to the opera, set in heaven, is a favorite concert excerpt.
Boito's literary powers never waned. As well as writing the libretti for his own operas, he wrote them for greater operas by two other composers. As "Tobia Gorrio" (an anagram of his name), he provided the libretto for Amilcare Ponchielli's La Gioconda.
Collaboration with Verdi
Shortly after he had collaborated with Verdi on Inno delle nazioni ("Anthem of the Nations", London, 1862), Boito offended him in a toast to his long-time friend, the composer (and later conductor) Franco Faccio. The rapprochement was effected by the music publisher Giulio Ricordi, whose long-term aim was to persuade Verdi to write another opera. Verdi agreed that Boito should revise the libretto of the original 1857 Simon Boccanegra. Musicologist Roger Parker speculates that this was based on a desire to "test the possibility" of working with Boito, before possibly embarking on a larger project. The revised Boccanegra premiered to great acclaim in 1881. With that, their mutual friendship and respect blossomed, and that larger project became Otello. Although Verdi's aim to write the music for an opera based on Shakespeare's King Lear never came to fruition (despite the existence of a libretto), Boito provided subtle and resonant libretti not just for Otello (based on Shakespeare's play Othello) but also for Falstaff (which was based on two other Shakespeare plays, The Merry Wives of Windsor and parts of Henry IV). After those many years of close association, when Verdi died in 1901, Boito was at his bedside.
Libretti by Boito
The years given are those of the premieres. Boito also provided the text to Verdi's cantata Inno delle Nazioni which was first given on 24 May 1862 at Her Majesty's Theatre, London.
- Amleto (Franco Faccio; 1865)
- Mefistofele (1868, his own music; 1875, his own music)
- Un tramonto (Gaetano Coronaro; 1873)
- La falce (Alfredo Catalani; 1875)
- La Gioconda (Amilcare Ponchielli; 1876)
- Semira (L. San Germano; never perf.)
- Ero e Leandro (Giovanni Bottesini; 1879 – Luigi Mancinelli; 1897)
- Simon Boccanegra (Giuseppe Verdi; 1881 [revised version of the 1857 original])
- Basi e bote (Riccardo Pick-Mangiagalli; 1927)
- Otello (Verdi; 1887)
- Falstaff (Verdi; 1893)
- Nerone (Boito, unfinished, lacking act V; 1924)
Recordings of two operas exist:
Depictions in media
- The play After Aida — a 1985 play-with-music by Julian Mitchell — depicts the struggle of Giulio Ricordi and Franco Faccio to get the retired Verdi to collaborate with young Boito on a project, which resulted in Otello.
- In November 2001, Tell Giulio the Chocolate is Ready, a radio play by Murray Dahm, was produced and broadcast by Radio New Zealand. The play is based on the letters of the Verdi-Boito correspondence and explores the genesis and production of Verdi and Boito's opera Otello. The play and broadcast included those sections of the opera as they appeared in the correspondence (such as Iago's Credo).
- Arrigo Boito at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Ashbrook 1998, in Sadie, p. 528
- Businelli, p. 51
- Boito, Arrigo. Przeslica, Agnieszka (ed.). "Publication of Boito's A minor Symphony". Boccaccini E Spada. Retrieved 11 November 2008.[permanent dead link]
- [author missing], The Independent Review, 4 August 2003, p. 15.
- Parker, p. 382
- Ashbrook, William (1998), "Boito, Arrigo", in Stanley Sadie, (Ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. One, pp. 527–529. London: Macmillan Publishers, Inc. 1998 ISBN 0-333-73432-7 ISBN 1-56159-228-5
- "Arrigo Enrico Boïto", Opera Glass Composer Index, (Stanford University) on opera.stanford.edu. Retrieved 17 January 2014
- Budden, Julian (1984), The Operas of Verdi, Volume 2: From Il Trovatore to La Forza del Destino. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-19-520068-3 (hardcover) ISBN 978-0-19-520450-6 (paperback).
- Budden, Julian (1984), The Operas of Verdi, Volume 3: From Don Carlos to Falstaff. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-30740-8
- Businelli, Mariella; Giampiero Tintori (1986), Arrigo Boito, Musicista e Letteratto, Nuove Edizioni
- D'Angelo, Emanuele (2007), "Arrigo Boito", in Encyclopedia of Italian Literary Studies, edited by Gaetana Marrone. New York: Routledge. Vol. 1, pp. 271–274.
- D'Angelo, Emanuele (2010), Arrigo Boito drammaturgo per musica: Idee, visioni, forma e battaglie, Venezia, Marsilio.
- De Van, Gilles (trans. Gilda Roberts) (1998), Verdi's Theater: Creating Drama Through Music. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14369-4 (hardback), ISBN 0-226-14370-8
- Kimball, David (2001), in Holden, Amanda (Ed.), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam, 2001. ISBN 0-14-029312-4
- Maeder, Costantino, Il real fu dolore e l'ideal sogno. Arrigo Boito e i limiti dell'arte, Cesati: Firenze, 2002.
- Parker, Roger (1998), "Simon Boccanegra", in Stanley Sadie, (Ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. Four. London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-333-73432-7 ISBN 1-56159-228-5
- Viagrande, Riccardo (2008), Arrigo Boito "Un caduto chèrubo", poeta e musicista, Palermo, L'Epos.
- Viagrande, Riccardo (2013), Verdi e Boito. "All'arte dell'avvenire". Storia di un'amicizia e di una collaborazione artistica, Monza, Casa Musicale Eco.
- Walker, Frank (1982), "Boito and Verdi" in The Man Verdi, New York: Knopf, 1962, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-87132-0