Bufo angusticeps amatolica Hewitt, 1925
The Amatola toad (Vandijkophrynus amatolicus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, where it is known from the Winterberg and Amathole Mountains. The specific name refers to the type locality, "Amatola Range, near Hogsback".
Amatola toads are small toads, with females reaching 38 mm (1.5 in) in snout–vent length. The dorsum is usually uniform dark grey or olive-brown with a distinct, pale, vertebral stripe. Parotoid glands are well developed. There are numerous small, flattened warts on the dorsal surface. The tadpoles are brown in colour.
Habitat and conservation
The species is known to congregate in large numbers to breed. However, it was not observed in 1998–2009 despite numerous searches, and the species was feared to be extinct. In 2011, an adult female and many tadpoles were again discovered, on a site that had been searched before. Detection seems to require suitable weather, i.e., heavy rains that trigger breeding.
The main threats to Amatola toad are loss of grassland through afforestation, overgrazing, and fires. Forestry vehicle use during the breeding season can be detrimental to the tadpoles and breeding adults.
- South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG), IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2010). "Vandijkophrynus amatolicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T3176A9651632. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Vandijkophrynus amatolicus (Hewitt, 1925)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Tarrant, Jeanne & Michael J. Cunningham (2011). "Rediscovery of the elusive Amatola Toad Vandijkophrynus amatolicus: twice seen in twenty-six years" (PDF). African Herp News. 55 (December 2011): 1–6.
- R.C. Boycott (2014). "Vandijkophrynus amatolicus (Hewitt, 1925)". African Amphibians. Retrieved 19 December 2015.