Eastern crested toad

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Eastern crested toad
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Peltophryne
Species: P. fracta
Binomial name
Peltophryne fracta
(Schwartz, 1972)
Synonyms

Bufo guntheri fractus Schwartz, 1972[2]
Bufo fractus Schwartz, 1972

The eastern crested toad (Peltophryne fracta) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the eastern Dominican Republic and only known from near Higüey in the La Altagracia Province, at elevations below 500 m (1,600 ft) asl.[1][3]

Description[edit]

Males grow to 72.5 mm (2.85 in)[4] and females 80 mm (3.1 in) in snout–vent length. Dorsum has yellowish tan ground color and is heavily overlaid with a very dark brown to black reticulated pattern.[2] They are morphologically similar to the related southern crested toad (Peltophryne guntheri) but are smaller in size, darker in dorsal coloration, and have a greater interorbital distance.[4]

The male advertisement call involves a distinctive diphthong, an “oo-aaaahhh”, contrasting with the monosyllabic call of Peltophryne guentheri.[4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Peltophryne fracta are difficult to find outside the breeding season.[1][4] The species was apparently observed only once after its description in 1972, but it was rediscovered in 2014, including a male chorus and non-chorusing males and females from several locations.[4] Breeding takes place in temporary pools,[1] including a rainwater-filled roadside ditch.[4] Breeding is triggered by heavy rains, and the breeding season corresponds to the Atlantic hurricane season.[4]

All observations of these animals are from degraded habitats[1][4] where the populations are facing further habitat degradation caused by urban development. A further threat is competition with and predation from introduced cane toads (Rhinella marina) and American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus). Male Peltophryne fracta has also been observed to try to mate with a male Rhinella marina.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Hedges, B., Inchaustegui, S., Hernandez, M. & Powell, R. (2004). "Peltophryne fracta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54641A11180042. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54641A11180042.en. 
  2. ^ a b Schwartz, A. (1972). "The native toads (Anura, Bufonidae) of Hispaniola". Journal of Herpetology. 6: 217–231. doi:10.2307/1562774. JSTOR 1562774. 
  3. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Peltophryne fracta (Schwartz, 1972)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Landestoy T, Miguel A., and Robert Ortíz (2015). "Rediscovery of the eastern crested toad (Peltophryne fracta), with comments on conservation, vocalization, and mating" (PDF). IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians: Conservation and Natural History. 22 (2): 50–55.