Eastern crested toad
|Eastern crested toad|
Bufo guntheri fractus Schwartz, 1972
The eastern crested toad (Peltophryne fracta) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the eastern Dominican Republic and only known from near Higüey in the La Altagracia Province, at elevations below 500 m (1,600 ft) asl.
Males grow to 72.5 mm (2.85 in) and females 80 mm (3.1 in) in snout–vent length. Dorsum has yellowish tan ground color and is heavily overlaid with a very dark brown to black reticulated pattern. They are morphologically similar to the related southern crested toad (Peltophryne guntheri) but are smaller in size, darker in dorsal coloration, and have a greater interorbital distance.
The male advertisement call involves a distinctive diphthong, an “oo-aaaahhh”, contrasting with the monosyllabic call of Peltophryne guentheri.
Habitat and conservation
Peltophryne fracta are difficult to find outside the breeding season. The species was apparently observed only once after its description in 1972, but it was rediscovered in 2014, including a male chorus and non-chorusing males and females from several locations. Breeding takes place in temporary pools, including a rainwater-filled roadside ditch. Breeding is triggered by heavy rains, and the breeding season corresponds to the Atlantic hurricane season.
All observations of these animals are from degraded habitats where the populations are facing further habitat degradation caused by urban development. A further threat is competition with and predation from introduced cane toads (Rhinella marina) and American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus). Male Peltophryne fracta has also been observed to try to mate with a male Rhinella marina.
- Hedges, B., Inchaustegui, S., Hernandez, M. & Powell, R. (2004). "Peltophryne fracta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54641A11180042. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54641A11180042.en.
- Schwartz, A. (1972). "The native toads (Anura, Bufonidae) of Hispaniola". Journal of Herpetology. 6: 217–231. doi:10.2307/1562774. JSTOR 1562774.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Peltophryne fracta (Schwartz, 1972)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- Landestoy T, Miguel A., and Robert Ortíz (2015). "Rediscovery of the eastern crested toad (Peltophryne fracta), with comments on conservation, vocalization, and mating" (PDF). IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians: Conservation and Natural History. 22 (2): 50–55.