Phrynoidis juxtasper

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Phrynoidis juxtasper
Borneo River Toad - California Academy of Sciences.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Phrynoidis
Species: P. juxtasper
Binomial name
Phrynoidis juxtasper
(Inger, 1964)

Bufo juxtasper Inger, 1964
Phrynoidis juxtaspera (Inger, 1964)

Phrynoidis juxtasper, also known as the giant river toad or Borneo river toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia) and Sumatra (Indonesia) below 1,600 m (5,200 ft) asl.[2]


Phrynoidis juxtasper are large toads: males grow to 120 mm (4.7 in) and females to 215 mm (8.5 in) in snout–vent length.[3] Habitus is stocky, but the limbs are relatively long. Skin bears large, round warts; ventral skin is granular. Warts of head, trunk, and limbs have melanic spinules on their tips.[4] Toes have extensive webbing, and these toads are good swimmers (and jumpers too).[3]

These toads can secrete large amounts of highly toxic, milky poison from their warts when disturbed. Also eggs and tadpoles are poisonous.[3]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Its natural habitats are primary and secondary forests, often along rocky creeks and riverbanks. It is a relatively adaptable species that is not facing significant threats.[1] Large specimens are occasionally hunted for food.[3]


  1. ^ a b Inger, R.; Stuebing, R.; Iskandar, D. & Mumpuni (2004). "Phrynoidis juxtasper". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 September 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Phrynoidis juxtasper (Inger, 1964)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 29 September 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d Haas, A.; Hertwig, S.T.; Das, I. (2015). "Phrynoidis juxtasper (Giant River Toad)". Frogs of Borneo. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  4. ^ Inger, R.F. (1966). "The systematics and zoogeography of the amphibia of Borneo". Fieldiana Zoology. 52: 1–402. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.3147.