Bufo juxtasper Inger, 1964
Phrynoidis juxtasper, also known as the giant river toad or Borneo river toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia) and Sumatra (Indonesia) below 1,600 m (5,200 ft) asl.
Phrynoidis juxtasper are large toads: males grow to 120 mm (4.7 in) and females to 215 mm (8.5 in) in snout–vent length. Habitus is stocky, but the limbs are relatively long. Skin bears large, round warts; ventral skin is granular. Warts of head, trunk, and limbs have melanic spinules on their tips. Toes have extensive webbing, and these toads are good swimmers (and jumpers too).
Habitat and conservation
Its natural habitats are primary and secondary forests, often along rocky creeks and riverbanks. It is a relatively adaptable species that is not facing significant threats. Large specimens are occasionally hunted for food.
- Inger, R., Stuebing, R., Iskandar, D. & Mumpuni (2004). "Phrynoidis juxtasper". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Phrynoidis juxtasper (Inger, 1964)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Haas, A., Hertwig, S.T., Das, I. (2015). "Phrynoidis juxtasper (Giant River Toad)". Frogs of Borneo. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- Inger, R.F. (1966). "The systematics and zoogeography of the amphibia of Borneo". Fieldiana Zoology 52: 1–402. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.3147.