Xanthophryne koynayensis

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Xanthophryne koynayensis
Xanthophryne koynayensis, an adult male.jpg
Adult male
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Xanthophryne
Species: X. koynayensis
Binomial name
Xanthophryne koynayensis
(Soman, 1963)

Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963
Bufo sulphureus Grandison and Daniel, 1964[2]

Xanthophryne koynayensis (common names: Humbali Village toad, chrome-yellow toad, Koyna toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the Western Ghats of India where it is known from Koyna (including Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary[1]) in the Maharashtra state.[3] Formerly included in the genus Bufo it has been since made the type species for the genus Xanthophryne and is a sister species of Xanthophryne tigerina.[4]


Xanthophryne koynayensis has been described twice using the same materials[4] collected in connection with the Koyna Hydroelectric Project:[2] first as Bufo koynayensis by Soman in 1963, and then as Bufo sulphureus by Grandison and Daniel in 1964.[4]


Xanthophryne koynayensis are relatively small toads: adult males measure 24–32 mm (0.94–1.26 in) in snout–vent length.[4] The body is covered by small warts with black tips and dark brown in colour; there are yellow patches on the flanks, thighs, and shoulders. The tympanum is indistinct.[2]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Xanthophryne koynayensis is a rare species. Its natural habitats are moist to wet evergreen forest and dry riparian grassland. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by agriculture and clear cutting of forests.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Biju, S.D.; Dutta, S. & Inger, R. (2004). "Xanthophryne koynayensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Grandison, A. G. C.; Daniel, J. C. (1964). "Description of a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from Satara district, Maharashtra, India". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 61: 192–194. 
  3. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Xanthophryne koynayensis (Soman, 1963)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d Biju, S.D.; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Giri, Varad B.; Loader, Simon P.; Bossuyt, Franky (2009). "Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India". BMC Research Notes. 2: 241. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-241.