Pine toad

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Pine toad
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Incilius
Species: I. occidentalis
Binomial name
Incilius occidentalis
(Camerano, 1879)
Bufo occidentalis distribution.svg

Bufo occidentalis Camerano, 1879
Bufo monksiae Cope, 1879
Cranopsis occidentalis (Camerano, 1879)
Bufo intermedius Günther, 1858
Cranopsis intermedia (Günther, 1858)
Rhinella intermedia (Günther, 1858)
Incilius intermedius (Günther, 1858)

The pine toad (Incilius occidentalis, formerly Bufo occidentalis) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Mexico and found on the Central Mexican Plateau.[1][2]


The species was confused with Incilius mccoyi until that species was described in 2011.[3]

Bufo intermedius[edit]

In 2016, the enigmatic Bufo intermedius, known only from old museum specimens supposedly collected from Ecuador and long suspected to be related to some Mexican species, was found to be synonym of Incilius occidentalis.[2][4][5] The decisive piece of evidence were the stomach contents that revealed two beetle species that do not occur in Ecuador.[4][5]

Bufo intermedius was described by Albert Günther in 1858, before Lorenzo Camerano described Bufo occidentalis (1879). Usually the older name has priority, but Joseph Mendelson and colleagues[4] have applied to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) to conserve the name Bufo occidentalis Camerano.[2][4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

It is a common toad that lives in a wide variety of habitats, including lowland xeric scrubs, deciduous forest,coniferous forests, and oak forests. It can also occur in disturbed environments. Breeding takes place in streams, and desiccation, alteration and pollution of its breeding habitat is the main threat to this species.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Georgina Santos-Barrera; Oscar Flores-Villela; Paulino Ponce-Campos (2010). "Incilius occidentalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T54719A11192351. Retrieved 8 December 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Incilius occidentalis (Camerano, 1879)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  3. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Incilius mccoyi Santos-Barrera and Flores-Villela, 2011". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 8 December 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d Mendelson, Joseph R.; Barclay, Maxwell V. L.; Geiser, Michael; Streicher, Jeffrey W. (2016). "The taxonomic status of Bufo intermedius Günther, 1858: forensic entomology confirms what was long suspected from morphology". Copeia. 104 (3): 697–701. doi:10.1643/CH-16-422. 
  5. ^ a b Hopkinson, Steve (5 September 2016). "Toad's last supper helps solve Victorian mystery". Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved 7 September 2016.